Thursday، 19 May 2016 - 02:22 PM
The Arab Republic of Egypt is considered one of the oldest countries in using electricity and natural gas since the eighties of the last century, when the major European cities first used electricity then.
Cairo and Alexandria were the first two cities that have witnessed using electricity in lighting purposes at the end of the nineteenth century, followed by Port Said and Tanta in 1902.
Supplying electricity to Egypt dated back to the year 1864 when Ismail Pasha assumed office; the businessman Charles Lebon requested the usufruct of lighting Cairo and Alexandria cities, using natural gas. Charles Lebon is one of the most prominent French businessmen who founded the factories of natural gas in France. On February 15, 1865, the first contract for distributing natural gas in Cairo, under which the Egyptian authorities granted franchising to Lebon’s Company. In 1873, the contract had been amended to extend franchising for a 75-year period expired in 1948, where distribution area included Bulaq and Ancient Egypt neighborhoods.
The Electric Generation and Distribution Companies had been owned for 70 years by the private sector and foreign companies until being nationalized in 1962 to become a state exclusive property and a government agency.
The first independent Ministry of Electric Power has been established by the Republican Decree No. 147 of 1964, followed by several modifying decrees; the most recent of which was the Presidential Decree No. 1103 of 1974, organizing the Ministry of Electricity and being identified with a set of goals, most notably is the policy making and setting the general plan in line with scientific and technological developments. This came in addition to supervising the implementation of this policy, following-up and monitoring various activities in the fields of electricity, overseeing the study and implementation of significantly important electric projects, providing advice, expertise and technical aid presented to Arab countries and others in the fields of electric power.
Ensuring Power Supply for All Egyptian Development Requirements:
As exerting tremendous efforts, the sector of electricity and renewable energy is keen on supplying, securing and stabilizing power for all development requirements all over Egypt and on meeting the increasing demand for electrical energy. As the maximum load reached about 26140 MW in 2013/2014, the electricity sector spares no effort to carry out new projects or expansions in the national electric grid by establishing electricity generating and transformer plants and networks for transforming and distributing energy from the places of generation to the places of distribution and consumption. Additionally, the electricity sector developed the already established networks, as well as set up projects of electricity linkage with the neighboring countries.
The policy of the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy has succeeded in providing electricity to more than 99% of Egypt's population. Moreover, the average per capita share of electricity has reached about 1965 kWh.
The following is a review of the most important achievements of the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy during the fiscal year2013/2014:
The electric generation capacity amounted to about 32,247 MW on June 30, 2014, where 1250 MW new generation capacities were expanded during the fiscal year2013/2014, represented in the following projects:
▪ Operating two natural gas units with a capacity of 2×250 MW at Banha electricity generating station, at a capacity of 750 MW combined cycle.
▪ Operating three gas units (1, 3 and 4), at a capacity of 3×250 MW at North Giza electricity generating station at a capacity of 2250 MW.
▪ Rehabilitating the old hydrogen station, replacement and renovation of (1-4) hypo units at Abu Qir power generation plant so as to improve the performance.
▪ Updating control system in operating steam and gas heaters of the two units at Sidi Krier power generation plant by self-efforts, as a part of environmental improvement projects and upgrading the performance of the plants.
▪ Developing voltage regulators, electric stimulation system and turbine speed organizers for the two units 9 and 10 at the High Dam electricity generating plant.
▪ Developing and testing the control systems, coasters and turbine speed organizers for the first unit at Aswan Power Station.
The amount of generated electricity reached about 168.1 billion kWh, 153.1 billion kwh of which are from thermal sources at a rate of 91%, 13.4 billion kwh from hydraulic sources, 1.4 billion kwh from wind farms, and 0.114 billion kWh from solar energy. Thus, the generated electric energy from renewable sources (hydraulic, wind and solar) is about 9%.
The amount of energy used in the industrial usage represents about 26% of the total consumed energy, household usage is about 43.2%, agricultural usage is about 4.4%, public utilities and governmental bodies are about 13.9%, commercial usage and others are 12.2%, while linkage and private usages are 0.3%.
Electric Energy Distribution and Transformation:
On June 30, 2014, the total voltage of electricity transforming station capacities on total voltages reached about 164.6 thousand MVA. Additionally, the aerial line and land cable lengths at both the high and extra-high voltage reached about 469.8 thousand kilometers.
(A) Electricity Transformer Networks:
- Transformer Stations:
The capacities of electrical transformer stations at both the high and extra-high voltage reached on June 30, 2014 about 108.1 thousand MVA; due to establishment and expansion during the current fiscal year of transformer stations of both high and extra-high voltage, at a total capacity of about 3712 MVA as follows:
• As for Extra-High Voltage Transformer Stations:
A number of transformer stations were established and expanded at a total additional capacity of 2630 MVA at the extra-high voltage.
• As for the High Voltage Transformer Stations:
A number of transformer stations were established and expanded at a total additional capacity of 1082 MVA (947 MVA at high voltage transformer stations in addition to about 135 MVA at the high voltage within the extra-high voltage).
- Aerial Lines and Land Cables:
The lengths of aerial lines and land cables at both the high and extra-high voltage reached about 44.2 thousand kilometers on June 30, 2014, where about 614 kilometers were added during the year 2013/2014.
(B) Distribution Networks:
- On June 30, 2014, total electricity distribution boards have reached about 2908, where 62 average voltage distribution boards have been installed, replaced and renovated during the year 2013/2014.
- On June 30, 2014, total medium-voltage distribution transformers reached about 167 thousand at a total capacity of about 65 thousand MVA, where 5298 distribution transformers and kiosks have been installed, replaced and renovated during the year 2013/2014.
- On June 30, 2014, total aerial lines and land cables at medium and low voltage reached about 425.6 thousand kilometers, where about 11.3 thousand kilometers have been supplied, replaced and renovated during the year 2013/2014.
- On June 30, 2014, total lengths of insulated conductors reached about 517 thousand kilometers at a percentage of 82% of the length of aerial lines at low voltage, where about 33.4 thousand km single insulated wires have been installed and replaced during the year 2013/2014.
- On June 30, 2014, total illuminated hamlets reached about 33 863, where 109 small hamlets have been illuminated during the year 2013/2014.
- The total number of villages furnished with electricity reached about 9808, where 232 villages have been funded during the year 2013/2014.
- The total number of village networks that have been replaced and renovated reached about 6457, where 698 dilapidated village networks have been replaced and renovated during the year 2013/2014.
- The first phase of electricity supply had been launched for reclamation and cultivation of 160 thousand feddans from the project linking East Owaynat to the national electricity network, where 20 thousand new feddans have been supplied with electricity, bringing the total area that were supplied to 115 thousand feddans in the first phase. The second phase had been launched for the cultivation and reclamation of 60 thousand feddans with a total cost of about LE 750 million.
New and Renewable Energies:
The sector strategy aimed at the contribution of renewable energies by 20% of the total generation capacity by the year 2022, where wind energy would contribute by 12% through the establishment of wind farms connected to the network with a total capacity of about 7,200 megawatts, as the private sector would implement 67% of which.
- The complex generation capacities from wind farms reached 550 MW which produced clean energy that reached about 1357 million kWh during the year 2013/2014. This saved about 285 thousand tons of equivalent heavy oil and curbed the emissions of about 745 thousand tons of carbon dioxide annually.
- Three wind farm projects with total capacities of 540 MW are underway to be operated successively during the period 2015-2017, namely:
§ 200 MW from Suez Gulf in cooperation with the German Development Bank, the European Investment Bank and the European Union. It is planned that the project would entirely be operated in March 2015.
§ 220 MW from Jabal az-Zayt in cooperation with the Japanese government.
§ A contract for the construction of 120 MW wind farm in Suez Gulf in cooperation with the Spanish government.
- The measures to finance wind projects with total capacities of 800 MW procedures have been taken as follows:
§ 200 MW in Suez Gulf in cooperation with the UAE Masdar Company.
§ 200 MW in West Nile in cooperation with the Japanese government.
§ 200 MW in Suez Gulf in cooperation with the European partners.
- The implementation of az-Zaafarana wind station is underway at a capacity of 120 MW with IPP system in collaboration with an Italian company.
- The first thermal solar station in al-Kurayymat generated electricity with a capacity of 140 MW. The station uses solar concentrators; each is of a capacity of about 20 MW. It is one of four solar stations in the world.
- Within the framework of electricity generation projects by using photovoltaic cell systems, the following missions have been undertaken:
§ Completing the feasibility study of establishing photovoltaic cell station with a capacity of 20 MW in Hurghada, in collaboration with the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The signing of the loan agreement is underway.
§ Completing the feasibility study of establishing photovoltaic cell station with a capacity of 20 MW in Kom Ombo in collaboration with the French Development Agency (AFD). Discussions with the French side are taking place on the way to finance the project.
- Implementation of the project of Solar Water Heating System Facility in Egypt for Hotels (EGYSOL) which aims to support the expansion of the use of solar water heaters for hotels in the two governorates of Red Sea and South Sinai, through funding of U$ 500 thousand, through which the financial support reached 25% of the cost of each solar system. Systems were installed in 8 hotels with a total area of 717 m2 during the year 2013/2014, thus solar heaters have been, so far, installed in 24 hotels with a total area of about 2493 m2.
- The electricity sector has implemented a pilot experience by launching the project of establishing two solar stations on the two roofs of the main and the old buildings of the ministry linked to the network, with a capacity of 40 KW per station and illuminating 10 lampposts in front of the two buildings using photovoltaic cell technology. In this context, the following procedures have taken place:
§ On December 7, 2013, the Cabinet approved to scale up this experience to 1000 governmental buildings and ministries as a first stage; at a number of 25 buildings per each ministry.
§ On December 16, 2013, the Board of Governors approved the use of solar energy in street lighting and government buildings.
§ On February 2, 2014, the solar station of North Cairo Electricity Distribution Company (NCEDC) has been installed and operated with a capacity of 40 KW and implemented by the Arab Organization for Industrialization. Moreover, two lampposts have been installed in front of the building using photovoltaic cell technology.
- In cooperation with the Emirati side, Egypt is currently establishing electricity generating plant with a capacity of 10 MW in Siwa. This is done in the framework of supplying electricity to the communities and cities that are relying at the moment on diesel stations and that are suffering a shortage of electricity supply; all of which are unconnected to the electricity grid.
The procedures for establishing the new Hydropower Assiut Barrage plant are underway to add 32 MW new capacities to the current national network of water stations which reached to 2842 MW from the High Dam, Aswan 1, 2, Nag Hammadi and Esna.
Peaceful Nuclear Program of Egypt:
- The right to establish the first nuclear plant project at ad-Dhabaa have been approved in light of the recent agreement between the inhabitants and the Ministry of Defense.
- Starting the peaceful nuclear program to generate electricity by establishing 4 nuclear reactors at ad-Dhabaa with a capacity of 4×1000 MW that will be completed by 2027, while the first reactor will be operated in 2022. The specifications for the first nuclear station have been prepared and reviewed by the experts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It is currently ready to be let for global bidding after getting the political approval.
Egypt… a Pivotal Centre for Electric Linkage:
The electricity sector in Egypt is seeking to develop its performance through diversification of electric power sources, including the policies of energy trading on the regional and international levels. This is through electric linking with the neighboring countries after the completion of linking among Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon to the east, as well as Egypt and Libya to the west.
Linking Egypt to the Saudi Arabia:
Determining the track and the design of the Egyptian electrical linking network with the Saudi electricity network for the exchange of 3,000 MW. The technical specifications of the project in its final form have been ultimately prepared, where the three electrical linking agreements (Linking Agreement, Operational Agreement and Trade Agreement) have been signed on December 12, 2013, and the executive procedures of the project are taken. The project is expected to be completed in 2017. By completing the aforementioned linking projects, Egypt will become a pivotal centre for electric linkage.
Electric Power and the Environmental Dimension:
The electricity and renewable energy sector applied a series of measures to protect the environment and to curb gases of the greenhouse effect, salient of which are;
• Using the combined cycle power plants in the new projects (characterized by the production of the third of the energy without extra fuel).
• Maximizing the use of natural gas as a clean fuel instead of liquid oil (heavy oil - diesel oil) in electricity generation plants.
• Using Super-Critical Power Generation Plant technology for the first time in Egypt where the establishment of Ain Sokhna electricity generation plants with a capacity of 2×650 MW, which are higher than their similar plants with efficiency up to 43%.
• Applying many engineering and technological systems related to water and air pollution, especially to get rid of wastes from electricity generation plants.
• Expanding electricity generation from the renewable energy (wind - Solar).
• Preparing the code to link photovoltaic solar stations to the network at the medium and low voltage.
Improving Efficiency and Rationalizing Consumption of Energy:
- Continuing the program of rationalizing lighting, where about 12 million energy-saving light-bulbs were distributed on houses and about 534 thousand high efficiency light-bulbs have been used in public lighting.
- Inviting to tender to supply 10 million LED light-bulbs, where the technical envelope had been opened on October 14, 2014. This is currently under study to discuss the mechanism of distribution and the possibility of stimulating the consumers to use.
- Continuing the national plan to improve energy efficiency measures in Egypt (2012- 2015), which has been launched on November 5, 2012 to achieve expected saving up to 5% of the average consumption of the last five years. The following procedures have been taken:
• Rationalizing energy in some mosques in Greater Cairo, where two hundred mosques were energy-checked and a plan is underway to complete the rest of the mosques all over the country.
• Coordinating with heavy-consumption-energy factories to plan for power distribution of some loads in non-peak times without affecting the efficiency or the amount of production and using that period in maintenance work.
• Coordinating with the sectors of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Irrigation and Hospitals to use diesel units at peak hours.
• Coordinating with the General Directorate for Electricity Police to implement an integrated plan to combat thefts of electric current.
• Starting the project of installing smart meters and activating the system of heavy subscribers across all distribution companies, the matter which will help to control the management of loads throughout the day.
• Notifying electricity distribution companies and addressing both the Ministry of State for Local Development and the Ministry of Transport to take the necessary measures to call for rationalizing energy through advertisements on the main roads, on the bridges and in city streets and imposing conditions on granting permits for new advertisements to use solar energy in lighting billboards.
• Applying standards for energy efficiency of the most energy-consuming electric appliances (refrigerators, air-conditions, automatic washing machines, electric kettles and distribution transformers).
• Undertaking an initiative to spread the culture of using highly efficient lighting systems in governmental buildings through applying the project of improve energy efficiency, funded by the Global Environment Facility and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to contribute to finance 50% of the total cost of the pilot projects to improve the efficiency of different lighting systems (with maximum of LE 250 thousand).
Electric Power and the Social Dimension:
The Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy pays due attention to providing electricity supply to all Egyptians and upgrading the level of service to promote the citizen’s standard of living and welfare. The following measures have been taken:
Improving the Quality of Services Provided to the Public and Raising the Efficiency:
Believing in the right of citizens to easily receive electricity, the Electricity Sector established service centers in cities and villages and developed the existing ones. During the year 2013/2014, three engineering centers had been established in cities, bringing the total service and engineering centers that were established to 1150. Additionally, a number of five service centers were developed, including; the inside and outside development of the building, providing public reception halls, lighting and ventilation.
- The percentage of local manufacturing of the electric energy in the Egyptian network reached to:
· 100% of the distribution and transport networks up to 220 KV.
· 42% in electricity generation plants.
- The percentage of the local component in the project of the first solar thermal plant reached 50%.
- The current 30% from the wind power equipment is locally manufactured and it is planned to increase to 70% by 2020.
- There are opportunities to invest in many fields, including; energy-saving lamps, dry transformers, electronic meters, linking direct current networks, smart networks, wind turbines, photovoltaic cells and solar concentrators.
Cooperation with African Countries:
To enhance the relations between Egypt and African countries in general and the Nile Basin countries in particular, with a view to optimal utilization of natural resources in the continent, the Egyptian Electricity Sector has been keen on being actively present in the continent through several procedures, salient of which are;
- Egyptian electricity and renewable energy sector pays due attention to building capacity and experiences in African countries in general and the Nile Basin countries in particular. This is based on what is the sector possessed of the enormous base of advanced training capabilities in terms of trained staff, laboratories, system simulation, workshops, equipment, fixtures and research centers in the two fields of conventional and renewable energy. It is an instrumental supporter in propagating and marketing these potentials inside and outside Egypt, and a contributor to the preparation of high-level technical competencies in the fields of production, transmission and distribution of energy.
- In this context, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy Plan implemented a project entitled "cooperation with African countries". The project is being implemented through an annual grant offered to those countries by holding training programs, workshops, dispatch Egyptian experts to countries of the continent, where 70 training programs as well to two workshops have been implemented with the participation of 1130 trainees from the Nile Basin countries (Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, southern Sudan and Eritrea), 222 trainees of which during the fiscal year 2013/2014.
Cooperation with South Sudan:
- The draft feasibility study has been revised to establish a power plant attached to "Waw" Dam where the systems engineering company in participation with the French ARTELA company prepared the study referred to above through a grant from the Egyptian government to the South Sudan State based on the trilateral cooperation Protocol signed on September 24, 2012 between the two Ministries of Irrigation and Electricity on one hand and he Egyptian Electricity Holding Company on the other. On August 21, 2014, a complete copy of the feasibility study was handed over to the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation and the minutes of receiving the study was signed.
- In addition to providing assistance during the past period, where the Egyptian electricity and renewable energy sector through granting lighting for 4 cities in south Sudan completed the establishment of a power-generating station at a capacity of 2 × 1 MW in (Waw) city and was officially inaugurated in 2009. The electric current has been also flowed and three power plants have been delivered at a capacity of 2 × 1.4 MW each in Port, Rumbek and Yambio cities in southern Sudan. Delivering notes are currently being Fulfilled at Primary delivery of the three stations, where the letter of South Sudan Agency dated back to July 2, 2014 reported that the three stations had been operated for periods ranging from two months to a year with loads ranging from 300-650 KW, and that the plants have been stopped its operation due to the lack of fuel supply.
Expand the role of the Egyptian companies on the African continent:
The Egyptian companies have managed working in the field of electricity and energy to break into global markets and many African countries in various fields such as; consultation, contracting and procurement. Some companies constructed factories in other African countries, in the field of electrical gear (transformers, electric cables, counters, etc.)
Egypt is chosen a coordinative control center to the 10 electric linkage countries