Society in the Constitution
Sunday، 15 May 2016 - 12:00 AM
The establishment of the ancient Egyptian community was linked to a great extent to the factors of environment, a matter that paved the way before setting up one of the oldest human civilizations on the banks of the Nile River.
Undoubtedly, building up a life and community is the fruit of the human interaction with the milieu and the effect of both on the other.
Indeed, the pillars of the Egyptian community were established when the ancient Egyptian managed to tame the River Nile which had a tremendous effect on the life of the ancient Egyptian.
Therefore, the ancient Egyptian came to learn about agriculture ever since the so-called Modern Stone Age when he began to prepare the lands of the valley for cultivation. This is besides establishing his own cities and villages close to the River Nile.
And, as he decided to stay near the banks of the River Nile, he sought to solve the problems that would endanger his life in case of the Nile flood.
So, the ancient Egyptian found out that he could never establish a community except through controlling the River Nile, which he adored, via benefiting from its water in order to cultivate the land.
Hence, he built dams to protect himself and his properties besides digging canals in order to make efficient use of the Nile water.
The ancient Egyptian found out that this could not be done alone, so came the need for combined efforts with his life partners. Thus, he got the meaning of community that is based on cooperation without which he could have never subjugated his own milieu.
In addition, the ancient Egyptian realized the fact that such cooperation should be done within the framework of rules so as to help organize it. That’s why he came to know what we nowadays call the government whose role is to achieve justice so as to help make a stable life.
Society in the Constitution
Social and Moral Constituents
Social solidarity is the basis of the society.
The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all citizens.
The family is the basis of the society founded on religion, morality and patriotism.
The State is keen to preserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family, together with the values and traditions it embodies while affirming and developing this character in the relations within the Egyptian society.
The State shall guarantee protection of motherhood and childhood, take care of children and youth and provide suitable conditions for the development of their talents.
The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal rights with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence.
The society shall be committed to safeguarding and protecting morals, promoting the genuine Egyptian traditions and abiding by the high standards of religious teachings, moral and national values, historical heritage of the people, scientific facts, socialist conduct and public morality within the limits of the law.
The State is committed to abiding by and promoting these principles.
War veterans, those injured in or because of war, and wives and children of those killed in action shall have priority in access to work opportunities according to the law.
The State shall guarantee social and health insurance services and all the citizens shall have the right to pensions in cases of incapacity, unemployment and old age, in accordance with the law.
Education is a right guaranteed by the State.
It is obligatory in the primary stage and the State shall work to extend obligation to other stages.
The State shall supervise all branches of education and guarantee the independence of universities and scientific research centres, with a view to linking all this with the requirements of society and production.
Religious education shall be a principal subject in the courses of general education.
Education in the State educational institutions shall be free of charge in its various stages.
Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for which all the people’s energies should be mobilized.
Public Freedoms, Rights And Duties
All citizens are equal before the law.
They have equal public rights and duties without discrimination on account of race, ethnic origin, language, religion or creed.
Individual freedom is a natural right and shall not be touched.
Except in cases of a flagrant delicate, no person may be arrested, inspected, detained or his freedom restricted or prevented from free movement except by an order necessitated by investigations and preservation of the security of the society.
This order shall be given by the competent judge or the Public Prosecution in accordance with the provisions of the law. The law shall determine the period of custody.
Any person arrested, detained or his freedom restricted shall be treated in the manner concomitant with the preservation of his dignity.
No physical or moral harm is to be inflicted upon him.
He may not be detained or imprisoned except in places defined by laws organising prisons.
If a confession is proved to have been made by a person under any of the aforementioned forms of duress or coercion, it shall be considered invalid and futile.
Any medical or scientific experiment may not be undergone on any person without his/her free consent.
Homes shall have their sanctity and they may not be entered or inspected except by a causal judicial warrant prescribed by the law.
The law shall protect the inviolability of the private life of citizens.
Correspondence, wires, telephone calls an other means of communication shall have their own sanctity and secrecy and may not be confiscated or monitored except by a causal judicial warrant and for a definite period according to the provisions of the law.
The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and the freedom of practice of religious rites.
Freedom of opinion is guaranteed.
Every individual has the right to express his opinion and to publicise it verbally or in writing or by photography or by other means within the limits of the law.
Self-criticism and constructive criticism is the guarantee for the safety of the national structure.
Freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass media shall be guaranteed.
Censorship on newspapers is forbidden as well as notifying, suspending or cancelling them by administrative methods.
In a state of emergency or in time of war a limited censorship may be imposed on newspapers, publications and mass media in matters related to public safety or purposes of national security in accordance with the law.
The State shall guarantee the freedom of scientific research and literary, artistic and cultural invention and provide the necessary means for its realisation.
No citizen may be prohibited from residing in any place and no citizen may be forced to reside in a particular place, except in the cases defined by the law.
No citizen may be deported from the country or prevented from returning to it.
Citizens shall have the right to permanent or temporary immigration.
The law shall regulate this right and the measures and conditions of immigration and leaving the country.
The right to political asylum shall be guaranteed by the State for every foreigner persecuted for defending the peoples’ interests, human rights, peace or justice.
The extradition of political refugees is prohibited.
Citizens shall have the right to peaceful and unarmed private assembly, without the need for prior notice.
Security men should not attend these private meetings.
Public meetings, processions and gatherings are allowed within the limits of the law.
Citizens shall have the right to associate as defined in the law.
The establishment of associations whose activities are hostile to the social system, clandestine or have a military character is prohibited.
The creation of syndicates and unions on a democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law, and should have a moral entity.
The law regulates the participation of syndicates and unions in carrying out the social programmes and plans, raising the standard of efficiency, consolidating the socialist behavior among their members, and safeguarding their funds.
They are responsible for questioning their members about their behavior in exercising their activities according to certain ethical codes, and for defending the rights and liberties of their members as defined in the law.
Any assault on individual freedom or on the inviolability of private life of citizens and any other public rights and liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and the law shall be considered a crime, whose criminal and civil lawsuit is not liable to prescription.
The State shall grant a fair compensation to the victim of such an assault.
The defense of the motherland is a sacred duty, and conscription is obligatory in accordance with the law.
Safeguarding, consolidating and preserving the socialist gains is a national duty.
Protecting national unity and keeping State secrets is the duty of every citizen.
Payment of taxes and public imports is a duty, in accordance with the law.
Citizens shall have the right to vote, nominate and express their opinions in referendums according to the provisions of the law.