Trade unions in Egypt
Monday، 20 July 2009 - 12:00 AM
Syndicate formations have existed in Egypt for a long time to cover all professions, specialisations and different crafts in order to defend the rights of the workers and develop and protect the profession itself. The year 1876 saw the lawyers' establishment of a syndicate before the mixed courts. On July 9, 1887, it was endorsed under an official decree. The lawyers also established a group before the local courts represented in electing a committee which pursued preparing a special regulation. It was also endorsed under an official decree in December 1888. Unfortunately, it ceased to exit.
A number of lawyers attempted to form a new syndicate before the local courts in 1897 and they managed to secure the release of law 26/1912 on establishing the Egyptian Bar Association.
On July 20, 1916, law 15/1916 was issued to establish the Bar Association before the religious courts. Hence, there were three syndicates for lawyers in Egypt: The Bar Association before the mixed courts (1876), the Bar Association before the local courts (1912) and the Bar Association before the religious courts (1916).
In 1949, law 51 was issued to annul the Bar Association before the mixed courts. Hence, all lawyers, affiliated to that association, were enlisted as lawyers before the national courts. Due to annulling the religious courts, lawyers affiliated to the Bar Association before the religious courts were also enlisted as lawyers before the national courts. From January 1956, one Bar Association used to exist in Egypt.
In 1941, the Syndicate of Journalists was established and it was the second professional syndicate to be endorsed in Egypt under a special law.
In 1951, law 133 on practising accountancy and auditing was issued. Four years later, law 349/1955 was issued to establish Syndicate of Accountants and Auditors.
Leagues were also established, including primary education league (1924), Al-Azhar graduates' league (1941), university teachers league (1942) till the Teachers Syndicate was established in 1954 to join all those working in the education field.
Subsequently, other professional syndicates were established given the notable increase of Egypt's population and the implementation of political pluralism in Egypt. This was reflected on some syndicates which exceeded their role in protecting and developing the profession to play a major role in the political life in Egypt.
Today, there are 25 trade unions in Egypt as follows:
1- Syndicate of Lawyers, established in 1912.
2- Syndicate of Journalists, established in 1941.
3- Syndicate of Engineers, established in 1946.
4- Medical Syndicate, established in 1949.
5- Dental Union, established in 1949.
6- Pharmacists Syndicate, established in 1949.
7- Veterinarians Syndicate, established in 1949.
8- Syndicate of Agriculture professions, established in 1954.
9- Syndicate of Teachers, established in 1955.
10- Film Association, established in 1955.
11- Syndicate of Actors, established in 1955.
12- Syndicate of Musicians, established in 1955.
13- Trade Syndicate, established in 1964.
14- Syndicate of Scientific Professions, established in 1973.
15- Social Union, established in 1974.
16- Syndicate of Artistic applied professions, established in 1976.
17- Syndicate of Applied Arts Designers, established in 1976.
18- Syndicate of Artists, established in 1976.
19- Syndicate of Nursing Careers, established in 1986.
20- General Tourist Guides Syndicate, established in 1993.
21- Syndicate of Mohaffezy of Holy Qura’an, established in 1993.
22- Syndicate of Athletes, established in 1987.
23- Syndicate of Customs Workers, established in 1994.
24- General Physical Therapy Syndicate, established in 1994.
25- General Syndicate of Public Utilities Workers, established in 1964.