Egyptian Policy Foundations
Tuesday، 19 January 2016 12:00 AM
Throughout history, Egyptians have refused to live under occupation, persecuted and oppressed. All attempts at disintegrating society in Egypt have failed. The revolutions of 1919, 1952, 2011 and 2013 broke out, which greatly influenced the history of both Egypt and the Arab world.
In the heat of the 2013 Revolution, it was essential that a roadmap be set out for future action. Hence the January 2014 Constitution, approved by a majority of 98.1% of Egyptian votes. Following are the key foundations of Egyptian policy as enshrined therein:
· The Arab Republic of Egypt is a sovereign state, united and indivisible, where nothing is indispensable, and its system is democratic republic based on citizenship and the rule of law.
Egypt is part of the Arab nation and enhances its integration and unity.
Sovereignty belongs to the people alone, which exercises it and protects it. They are the source of power.
They safeguard their national unity, which is based on the principle of
equality, justice and equal opportunity between citizens, as provided in this
· The political system is based on political and partisan multiplicity, the peaceful transfer of power, the separation and balance of powers, authority going with responsibility, and respect for human rights and freedoms, as set out in the Constitution.
· Society is based on social solidarity.
The state commits to achieving social justice, providing the means to achieve social solidarity to ensure a decent life for all citizens, in the manner organized by law.
The state ensures equal opportunity for all citizens without discrimination.
The state commits to protecting worker rights, and works on building balanced work relationships between the two sides of the production process.
It ensures means for collective negotiations and works on protecting workers against the risks of work, ensures that conditions for professional security, safety and health are met, and prohibits arbitrary dismissal. All the foregoing is as organized by law.
· The state provides social security services.
The state guarantees to maintain and support public health
facilities that provide health services to the people, and work on enhancing
their efficiency and their fair geographical distribution.
Every citizen has the right to education with the aim of
building the Egyptian character, maintaining national identity, planting the
roots of scientific thinking, developing talents, promoting innovation and
establishing civilizational and spiritual values and the concepts of
citizenship, tolerance and non- discrimination.
· The economic system aims at achieving prosperity in the country through sustainable development and social justice to guarantee an increase in the real growth rate of the national economy, raising the standard of living, increasing job opportunities, reducing unemployment rates and eliminating poverty.
· Natural resources belong to the people. The state commits to preserving such resources, to their sound exploitation, to preventing their depletion, and to taking into consideration
the rights of future generations to them.
The state commits to making the best use of renewable energy resources, motivating investment, and encouraging relevant scientific research.
The state protects ownership, which is three types: Public ownership, private ownership, and cooperative ownership.
· The state commits to the implementation of a housing program that aims at achieving balance between population growth rates and the resources available, maximizing investment in human energy, and improving its features, within the framework of achieving
· The state commits to protecting, developing and maintaining the Suez Canal as aninternational waterway that it owns. It is also committed to the development of thecanal
sector as a significant economic pillar.
The state commits to protecting the Nile River, maintaining Egypt’s historic rights thereto, rationalizing and maximizing its benefits, not wasting its water or polluting it. The state commits to protecting its mineral water, to adopting methods appropriate to achieve water safety, and to supporting scientific research in this field.
The state commits to protecting its seas, beaches, lakes, waterways, mineral water, and natural reserves.
It is prohibited to encroach upon, pollute, or use them in a manner that contradicts their nature. Every citizen has the right to enjoy them as regulated by law. The state also commits to the protection and development of green space in urban areas.
· The state is committed to protecting Egyptian cultural identity with its diverse civilizational origins.
The state is committed to support it and provide all types of cultural materials to the different groups of people without discrimination based on financial capacity, geographical location, or anything else. The state gives special attention to remote areas and the groups most in need.
· Al-Azhar is an independent scientific Islamic institution, with exclusive competence over its own affairs.
It is the main authority for religious sciences, and Islamic affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam and disseminating the religious sciences and the Arabic language in Egypt and the world.
· Citizens are equal before the law, possess equal rights and public duties, and may not be discriminated against on the basis of religion, belief, sex, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographical affiliation, or for any other reason.
· Personal freedom is a natural right which is safeguarded and cannot be infringed upon. Except in cases of in flagrante delicto, citizens may only be apprehended, searched, arrested, or have their freedoms restricted by a causal judicial warrant necessitated by an investigation.
· Every person has the right to a secure life. The state shall provide security and reassurance for citizens, and all those residing within its territory.
The human body is inviolable. Any assault, defilement or mutilation thereof is a crime punishable by law.
· Freedom of belief is absolute.
The freedom of practicing religious rituals and establishing
places of worship for the followers of revealed religions is a right organized
Freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed.
All individuals have the right to express their opinion through speech, writing, imagery, or any other means of expression and publication.
Freedom of scientific research is guaranteed. The state shall sponsor researchers and inventors and protect and work to apply their innovations.
Freedom of artistic and literary creation is guaranteed. The state shall undertake to promote art and literature, sponsor creators and protect their creations, and provide the necessary means of encouragement to achieve this end.
· The state shall ensure the independence of all press institutions and owned media outlets, in a way that ensures their neutrality and expressing all opinions, political and intellectual trends and social interests; and guarantees equality and equal opportunity in addressing public opinion.
Citizens have the right to organize public meetings, marches, demonstrations and all forms of peaceful protest, while not carrying weapons of any type, upon providing notification as regulated by law.
· Citizens have the right to form non-governmental organizations and institutions on a democratic basis, which shall acquire legal personality upon notification.
· The state shall guarantee the health, economic, social, cultural, entertainment, sporting and education
rights of dwarves and people with disabilities.
· Preservation of national security is a duty, and the commitment of all to uphold such is a national responsibility ensured by law. Defense of the nation and protecting its land is an honor and sacred duty. Military service is mandatory according to the law.
Every citizen has the right to vote, run in elections, and express their opinion in referendums. The law shall regulate the exercise of these rights.
· The state shall protect the interests of Egyptians living abroad, protect them, guarantee their rights and freedoms, enable them to perform their public duties towards the state and society, and engage them in the nation's development. The law shall regulate their participation in elections and referendums in a way consistent with their particular circumstances.
· Slavery and all forms of oppression and forced exploitation against humans are forbidden, as is sex trafficking and other forms of human trafficking, all of which are punishable
· Rights and freedoms of individual citizens may not be suspended or reduced.
No law that regulates the exercise of rights and freedoms may restrict them in such a way as infringes upon their essence and foundation.
· The state is committed to the agreements, covenants, and international conventions of human rights that were ratified by Egypt. They have the force of law after publication in
accordance with the specified circumstances.
The state shall grant political asylum to any foreigner who has been persecuted for defending the interests of peoples, human rights, peace or justice. Extradition of political refugees is forbidden. All of the above is according to the law.
· The rule of law is the basis of governance in the state.
The state is subject to the law, while the independence, immunity and impartiality of the judiciary are essential guarantees for the protection of rights and freedoms.
Litigation is a safeguarded right guaranteed to all. The state shall bring together the litigating parties, and work towards speedy judgment in cases. It is forbidden to grant any act or administrative decision immunity from judicial oversight. Individuals may only be tried before their natural judge. Extraordinary courts are forbidden.
The right of defense either in person or by proxy is guaranteed. The independence of lawyers and the protection of their rights are ensured as a guarantee for the right of defense.
· The President of the Republic is the head of state and head of the executive branch of government.
He defends the interests of the people, safeguards the independence, territorial integrity and safety of the nation, and abides by the provisions of the Constitution and carries out his responsibilities in the manner prescribed therein.
The President of the Republic may conduct a cabinet reshuffle after consultation with the Prime Minister and the approval of the House of Representatives with an absolute majority of attendees that is no less than one third of its members.
· The House of Representatives is entrusted with legislative authority, and with approving the general policy of the state, the general plan of economic and social development and the state budget. It exercises oversight over the actions of the executive authority. All the foregoing takes place as set out by the Constitution.