Monday، 20 July 2009 - 12:00 AM
In 640 A.D., Amr bin Al-As conquered Egypt and he besieged the Fortress of Babylon till the surrender of the Byzantine forces there in 641 A.D.
Then, he proceeded to Alexandria and by virtue of Babylon Agreement, Alexandria surrendered too and he continued his conquest of Egypt.
The Islamic era in Egypt was generally the golden age for arts and architecture. Examples of such revival can be seen in the building of several mosques, fortresses and city walls, in addition to the flourishing of decorative arts. These were most evident in the construction of al-Fustat, the first capital of Egypt, where Amr Ibn el-Aas built the first mosque in the country. The Nile meter on the island of Rodha in modern Cairo, built by Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakel Billah in 245 AH, is known to be the oldest Islamic monument in Egypt.
Islamic architecture also flourished mainly in al-Qatay' city and Ahmed Ibn Touloon mosque which was built in the same style of Amr Ibn el-Aas mosque, with the addition of a fountain, minaret, props and the foundation sign board. The minaret of Ahmed Ibn Touloon mosque is known for its unique shape in Egypt derived from the Persian temples known as “Zigurat”.
Al-Geoshi Mausoleum is a model for dome structures and mosques built around the tombs of eminent men of religion.
During the Ayyubid period, further advances were made in the field of architecture. Salah ed-Din's (Saladin's) Citadel still stands out as a lofty, striking example of Islamic architecture. The Mamelukes were no less advanced in this field. They also left behind a great wealth of finely designed and decorated mosques, domes, mystics' houses, palaces, schools, khans (inns), fortresses and public drinking fountains. Egyptians under Islamic rule adopted the same techniques and styles of art and ornamentation prevailing in the preceding periods. Most notable arts of this period were wood engraving and ornamentation, assembled dove tailed and lathed wood work. Islamic style textiles, porcelain and stained glass were also widely known during this period.