27 June 2022 10:39 AM

Pharaonic Egypt

Monday، 20 July 2009 - 12:00 AM

1st Dynasty
Menes (Aha)
Aha is known for millions of people as King Menes of Memphis. He was the founding king of the 1st Dynasty, and the first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom.

Ancient Egypt’s most predominant form of civilization began with his crowning, and did not end permanently until the beginning of the Roman era, which started with Augustus Caeser.

Menes founded the city of Memphis, and chose its location on an island in the Nile, so that it could be easily defended. He was also the founder of Crocodopolis. During his time, the Egyptian army launched raids against the Nubians in the south and expanded his sphere of influence as far as the First Cataract on the Nile.

His chief wife was Queen Berenib, though she was not the mother of his heir, King Djer, and his mother was Neithotepe. His death is a mystery, for, according to a legend he was attacked by wild dogs and Nile crocodiles in Faiyum . Menes’ tomb relies at Saqqara, the famed necropolis of Memphis. He died at the age of Sixty Three.

Djer was the second king during the 1st Dynasty, when the crown was still present at Memphis. He was the son of Aha and one of his lesser ranked wives, a woman named Hent.
Djer built a palace at Memphis where he ruled Egypt for fifty years. He also launched a successful military campaign to fight the Hekssus in Sinai.

His name was found in an inscription on the Wadi Halfa, south of the first Cataract, proving the boundaries of his reign. Djer’s wife was Queen Herneith.

He was buried in a mortuary complex which is called the True Grave of the god Osiris.

Wadj, the third king of the1st Egyptian Dynasty. His stela is displayed at the Louvre in Paris. It is made of limestone carved by the sculptor Serekh.

The stela was discovered near the ancient city of Abydos where Wadj’s mortuary complex is located.

The only other place where Egyptologists found a reference to him was in an inscription near the city of Edfu, to the south of Egypt.

His wife was Queen Mereneith, who acted as mentor and advisor for his successor, King Den.

Den (Udimu)
Den was the fourth king of the 1st Dynasty. Because the king came to power in Egypt as an infant, Queen Merenith was appointed as his political advisor, which essentially meant that she ruled Egypt until he was capable for the rule by himself.

Den ruled Egypt for almost fifty years after Wadj. He was an energetic and athletic person, and was artistic as well.

He figures in the Ebers papyrus as well as the Berlin medical papyrus. Den was militarily active in Sinai, which was justified by his interest in protecting the mineral resources of the peninsula.

His mortuary complex was built in the ancient city of Abydos, but his body was buried at Saqqara.

Anedjib was the fifth king during the 1st dynasty. He kept Memphis as his capitol city throughout his 14 years of rule.

Anedjib’s crown carried the symbols of both Upper and Lower Egypt, a representation of the unification of the country under his power.

Historians, however, doubt that Anedjib really controlled the north, due to the fact that the northern Nomes rebelled against him constantly throughout his reign.

His wife, Queen Betrest, was the mother of King Semerkhet, who was his successor. The queen provided Anedjib with legitimacy and power since she was a descendant from the Memphite royal line.

Semerkhet was the sixth king of the 1st Dynasty. He was the son of King Adjib and Queen Betrest, and for unknown reasons, ruled only for eight years.

Egyptologists discovered very little about him, save for a black stela with Semerkhet’s name carved on it.

2nd dynasty
Hetepsekhemwy was the first king of the 2nd Dynasty. His name is a reference to the gods Horus and Seth "The Two Mighty Ones at Rest".

The king ruled Ancient Egypt for more than thirty five years.

During his era, an earthquake hit the vicinity of Bubastis in the Nile Delta. Some historians say that his brother started a military coup and threw him out of power

Reneb was the second king in the 2nd Dynasty.

Reneb controlled Egypt after a coup to overthrow his brother.

His royal seals were discovered at Saqqara and near Hermopolis.

Ninetjer was the third king of the 2nd Dynasty, and took Memphis as his capitol.

He ruled ancient Egypt for almost 40 years and he was famous for his festivals and marvelous temples

Peribsen was the fourth king of the 2nd Dynasty.

He was actually not the legitimate heir of Nintejer. In fact, many historians believe that the king was an outsider who instigated coup against King Nintejer.

King Peribsen used the designation of seth in his titles. Unfortunately, nothing from Peribsen’s era is well documented except for his mortuary complex near Abydos

The fifth king of the 2nd Dynasty was probably responsible for the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Not much is known about him, save the fact that he undertook massive military campaigns. A statue of him which resides in the Cairo Museum, demonstrates the first use of hard stone work during this period.

He is responsible for the construction of a large granite door jamb within the temple of Hierakonpolis, and the building of many of the mortuary complexes at both Saqqara and Abydos.

3rd dynsty
Zanakht 2650-2630 B.C.
Zanakht was the founder of the 3rd Dynasty, and was the older brother of King Djoser. Zanakht’s name is listed in the Abydos Book of Kings, the Turin Canon and in the Westcar Papyrus. His tomb at Saqqara was incorporated into the Step Pyramid.

(Djoser) 2630-2611 B.C.
The second king of the 3rd Dynasty was Netjerykhet, the son of Khasekhemwy. Also known as Djoser, he ruled for almost two decades and is accredited with building the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

The king’s vizier, Imhotep, was the architect of that great tomb, and of the magnificent Funerary Complex of Djoser at Saqqara. Egypt experienced a seven year famine during Djoser’s reign, so he sought the counsel of Imhotep and one of his governors, Medir, and agreed to travel to Elephantine at Aswan.

Once there he erected a temple to the god Khnum, who was said to control the flow of the Nile. The famine ended, miraculously enough, and people believed it was due to this act of faith.

Sekhemkhet 2611-2603 B.C.
Sekhmekhet was the third king of the 3rd Dynasty. His name is carved on a cliff near Wadi Maghara. The king has an unfinished pyramid at Saqqara with an alabaster coffin inside.

Khaba 2603-2599 B.C.
Khaba was the fourth king during the 3rd Dynasty. Egyptologists discovered his name carved into the walls of Sahure’s tomb. His name was also found at the stone bowl in Naqada. The pyramid at Zawiet el-Aryan, in the desert of Giza, is believed to be his resting place.

Huni 2599-2575 B.C.
Huni was the fifth king of the 3rd Dynasty. He ruled the country from 2599 BC until 2575 BC. The king is responsible for the construction of a fort at Elephentine Island as well as a pyramid at Meidum. His wife was Queen Meresankh I. She was the mother of his heir, Snofru. The famous sage Kagemi was a Vizer of Egypt during Huni’s reign.

4th dynasty
2575-2551 B.C.

The first king of the 4th Dynasty was an active military leader. His campaigns against the Nubians and the Libyans are recorded on the Palermo Stone. He began trade with the Mediterranean nations and initiated a series of construction projects throughout Egypt.

To supply Egypt with timber, he sent a fleet of forty ships to Lebanon. While there, he erected monuments to commemorate the event. He built his mortuary complex at Dashur, including the Maidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid, and the Red Pyramid.

The Bent pyramid is thought to be an architectural link between the Step Pyramid and the true pyramids. Snofru was deified by the kings of the 12th Dynasty. Many of the rulers of that time built their own mortuary complexes beside his.

(Cheops) 2551-2528 B.C.
Cheops was the second king of the 4th Dynasty and was the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Khufu was succeeded by Radjedef, his son by a lessor wife, whose reign was abruptly ended. He was succeeded by Khephren, Khufu’s son by Queen Henutsen. A miniature statue of Khufu is on display at the Cairo Museum. This is the only likeness of him known to be in existence.

Radjedef 2528-2520 B.C.
Radjedef was the third king of the 4th Dynasty and ruled the country from 2528 BC until 2520 BC. He was the son of Khufu from one of his lesser wives, and killed his own brother, Prince Kewab, who was the rightful heir to the throne.

He married Hetepheres , the widow of his murdered brother. His chief wife was Kentetenka. His pyramid was discovered at Abu Rowash in Giza.

(Chephren)(Khephren) 2520-2494 B.C.
The fourth king of the 4th Dynasty was Khafre (Chephren), the son of Khufu, and is responsible for the construction of the Pyramid of Chephren at Giza and the Great Sphinx. A statue of Khafre under the protective shadow of a falcon is in the Cairo Museum. His reign was succeeded by an, as yet, unknown king.

(Mycerinus)(Menhaure) 2490-2472 B.C.
The fifth king of the 4th dynasty was the son of Khephren. Though his pyramid at Giza was smaller than those of Khufu and Khephren, The Pyramid of Menkaure was covered with costly Aswan granite. His basalt sarcophagus was covered with fine decorations. His queen was Khamerernebty.

Shepseskaf 2472-2467 B.C.
Shepseskaf was the sixth king of the 4th Dynasty. He ruled ancient Egypt from 2472 BC until 2467 BC. Shepseskaf was in power through a very difficult political period, during which there were many confrontations with various priests.

Many Nomes desired independence and rebelled against Shepseskaf’s authority. He completed his predecessors’ monuments, but some records indicate that he was not descended from a royal lineage. His tomb is in South Saqqara.

5th dynasty
Userkaf (Userkhaf) 2465-2458 B.C.
Userkaf was the founder of the 5th Dynasty. He ruled Ancient Egypt from 2465 BC until 2458 BC. His wife, Queen Khentkaues, was of royal blood. Historians say that Userkaf married her to align himself with the royal lineage.

Unfortunately, his reign is not well documented, but he built a marvelous pyramid at Saqqara. His architecture and decoration demonstrates the artistic glory of the era.

The pyramid was designed to act as a chapel for offerings and a as a mortuary temple for the king. The temple court has square granite columns in all the corners and some beautiful reliefs on the walls. Two of the temple’s busts were recovered recently.

2458-2446 B.C.
The second king of the 5th Dynasty established the Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to Punt and traded with Palestine.

His pyramid has colonnaded courts and reliefs of his naval fleet, but his military career consisted mostly of campaigns against the Libyans in the western desert. He began the cemetery complex at Saqqara and he also had a diorite quarry just west of Abu Simbel.

Raneferef 2419-2416 B.C.
Raneferef was the fifth king of Dynasty V. He ruled the country from 2419 till 2416 BC. Unfortunately, historians could not find any important documentation of his reign.

Niuserre Izi 2416-2392 B.C.
Izi (Niuserre) was the sixth king of the Dyn. V. He ruled Ancient Egypt from 2416 till 2392 BC, and is famous for both his solar temple at Abu Gorab and his pyramid at Abu Sir. The reliefs in the burial chamber of his pyramid describe his military campaigns against Libyan rivals in the Western Desert and against Asiatics in Sinai.

He left an inscription at Wadi Maghara which served as a guide to the mineral mines of the region. His two wives, Reputneb and Khentikus, were buried near him at Abu Sir.

Menkauhor 2396-2388 B.C.
Menkauhor was the seventh king of the 5th Dynasty. He ruled Ancient Egypt from 2396 till 2388 BC, but never achieved the level of fame that the rest of the kings in his dynasty acquired. He built a pyramid in Dahshur, but only its ruins remain.

There is a small alabaster statue of Menkauhor located in the Egyptian museum in Cairo. He is reputed as having sent his troops to Sinai in order to acquire materials for the construction of his tomb.

Djedkare Izezi 2388-2356 B.C.
Izezi was the eighth king of the 5th Dynasty who ruled Egypt from 2388 till 2356 BC. He was a very smart and energetic king, and he was able to take full advantage of all the available mineral resources in Egypt at Wadi Hammamat and Sinai. His name was inscribed at Wadi Maghara and Wadi Halfa. His heir was his son, Prince Remkuy, who died before he assumed the throne

2356-2323 B.C.
Wenis was the ninth king of the 5th Dynasty. He ruled Egypt from 2356 till 2323 BC. During his reign, successful trade expeditions were conducted with neighboring nations.

An inscription raised at Elephantine shows a giraffe that was brought to Egypt with other exotic animals for ancient Egyptians, during Wenis’ reign. Another drawing found on a discovered vase shows battle scenes during his reign. There was a major famine during this time.

Wenis had two wives, Queen Nebet, who was the mother of Prince Wenisakh, and Queen Khenut. The king was buried in Saqqara in a marvelous tomb with walls covered with the "Pyramid Texts".

6th dynasty
Teti 2323-2291 B.C.
Teti was the first king and founder of the 6th Dynasty. He ruled Ancient Egypt from 2323 till 2291 BC. His wife, Queen Ipwet, is the daughter of King Wenis who was the last king of the 5th Dynasty. The queen was the mother of Teti’s heir, King Pepi I. Historians believe that she is the one who gave him the royal power. Almost all the major court officials of King Wenis remained in power during Teti’s reign. The king was murdered by his guards for mysterious reasons.

Teti granted more lands to Abydos and his name was inscribed in Hatnub. He built a pyramid in Saqqara which is called by modern Egyptians the " Prison Pyramid". Most of his reign was not documented. Egyptologists discovered a statue of him made of black and pink granite. The statue is located at the Egyptian museum. Teti’s son-in-law, Mereruka, was also his vizier. The Mastaba of Mereruka is located in Saqqara.

Pepi I
2289-2255 B.C.
The son of Teti and Queen Ipwet was the third king of the 6th Dynasty. An innovative leader, Pepi took the offensive military role. He attacked the Bedouins in Sinai and southern Palestine. He also led a campaign in Nubia to establish garrisons and trading posts.

His pyramid was so impressive that its name, Mennefermare, was given to the area. The capital, originally named Hiku-Ptah, was renamed Nennefer, then Menfi. The Greeks later transliterated it as Memphis. Pepi built temples at Tanis, Bubastis, Abydos, Dendera and Coptos.

Copper statues of Pepi were discovered in Hierakonpolis, and are on display in the Cairo Museum. His first wife disappeared soon after she was discovered in a harem plot to overthrow the throne. Afterwards he married two daughters of a nomarch and named them both Ankhnesmeryre. One of them was the mother of Pepi II.

(Neferkare) 2246-2152 B.C.
The fifth king of the 6th Dynasty was the son of Pepi I and Queen Ankhnesmeryre II. This successor of Nemtyemzaf was only six years old when he came to the throne. His mother served as his regent. As a child Pepi received word that a dwarf had been captured.

Pepi sent detailed instructions on the care of the dwarf, including a promise of a reward to the official that brought the dwarf safely to him. The letter stressed the importance of 24 hour care to keep the dwarf safe from harm.

Pepi sent trading expeditions to Punt and Nubia. Reportedly, Pepi ruled Egypt for 94 years. His wives were Queens Nit, Ankhnespepi, Wedjebten and Ipuit. His pyramid was built in Saqqara .

End of the ancient state
The beginning of the first transitional age
2180-2060 B.C

Dynasties from 7-10 are considered ages of feudality and the route to wane, which led to social and economic deterioration later then followed by a social revolution. Literature enhanced in such age.

7th Dynasty : no data available for kings of this dynasty or even their duration of power.
8th Dynasty : no data available for kings of this dynasty or even their duration of power.
9th Dynasty : kings of this dynasty are from Ihnasia. They are Khiti and his family.
10th Dynasty : names of this dynasty certainly not known, some of them are:-

• Nefarkarie
• Okharie
• Mriekharie

11th dynasty
Inyotef I
2074-2064 B.C.
Inyotef I was the founder of the 11th Dynasty. He took Thebes as the Capital of Egypt and ruled it from 2074 till 2064 BC. He was the son of Montuhotep I, the "elder". The king took over a divided Egypt and tried to reunite the north and the south under his power.

Herakleopolitans ruled Northern Egypt during the period of the 9th and 10th Dynasties’ kings. Inyotef was buried in Thebes in the mortuary complex that he built. His royal successors honored his mortuary complex and did not modify it.

Inyotef II
2064-2015 B.C.

Inyotef II was the second king of the 11th Dynasty. The king ruled Egypt from 2064 till 2015 B.C. and took Thebes as the capital during his reign. He was the younger brother of Inyotef I. The king led an army against his Herakloplitan allies in Assyout.

His enemies ruined the city of Thinis and desecrated its tombs. Inyotef captured the entire nome but did not continue to fight the Heraklopolitans. He decided to trade with them and maintain the integrity of the Southern Kingdom without further wars. Inyotef II’s wife was Queen Neferukayet. He was listed in the Westcar Papyrus and was inscribed on a mortuary stela.

Inyotef III
2015-2007 B.C.
Inyotef was the third king of the 11th Dynasty. He ruled Ancient Egypt from 2015 till 2007 BC. As any 11th Dynasty king, he took Thebes as the capital for his throne. Inyotef kept all the regions that his Theban predecessors left for him to rule.

He defended the city of Abydos from many Herakleopolitan assaults. Inyotef’s name is inscribed in the mountains of Silsileh. Queen Aoh was his main wife and the mother of his heir Montuhotep II. Inyotef’s daughter Neferu married his heir. The king had a second queen in his reign called Henite.

Montuhotep II
2007-1956 B.C.
Montuhotep II was not only the fourth king of the 11th Dynasty but also the first king of the Middle Kingdom. Montuhotep took the city of Herakleopolis which was the capital of the kings of the rival 10th Dynasty.

This victory established the rule of the land from Thebes. He fought against the Libyans in the Delta and the Asiatics in the Sinai. He built his mortuary complex at Deir el Bahri where he and his wives and members of his court were buried. The sarcophagi contained important information about the Egyptian language at the close of the First Intermediate Period.

Also discovered at Deir el Bahri were the bodies of 60 soldiers, all having died of battle wounds. They wore shrouds marked with cartouches and seals of Montuhotep II.

Montuhotep III
1956-1944 B.C.
The fifth king of the 11th Dynasty was the son of Montuhotep II and Queen Tem. His preference was for the arts and rebuilding. He also opened trade with the Red Sea region and was involved in the Wadi Hammamat quarrying operations. He built a shrine to the god Thoth near Deir el Bahri. His mortuary temple was never finished.

Montuhotep IV
1944-1937 B.C.
The sixth king of the 11th Dynasty was the son of Montuhotep III and Queen Imi. Following in his father’s footsteps, Montuhotep carried on with mining and quarrying.

He had an immense sarcophagus lid quarried in Wadi Hammamat which was later sailed down the Nile to the tomb site. Montuhotep founded the harbor town of Kuser on the Red Sea. The Egyptians, preparing for a journey to Punt, needed a harbor town the ship building. Many of these projects were conducted by Montuhotep’s’s successor, Amenemhet.

12th dynasty
Sehetepibre 1937-1908 B.C.
This 11th Dynasty vizier assumed the throne when Montuhotep IV died. It is believed that Amenemhet usurped the throne from the reigning king. He campaigned against the Libyans and the Asiatics in Sinai.

There he erected the Wall of the Prince to guard the eastern borders. He also built a trading post in Nubia at Kerma. He named his capital city, (on the border of Upper and Lower Egypt), Itj-Tawy, “Seizer of Two Lands.” Among his many wives was Nefrutotenen, mother of Senwosret I. Amenemhet made Senwosret I co-ruler in 1971 B.C. Amenemhet’s line, from non-royal birth, began a golden age for Egypt.

The Testament of Amenemhet , included in the Milligan Papyrus and the Papyrus Sallier II, was written as a commemorative following Amenemhet’s death. The Testament defines royal obligations and the needs of the people. It states that there are perils awaiting a king that is not alert to those around him. It also states that loneliness and personal sacrifice make for a good king.

1917-1872 B.C.
The second king of the 12th Dynasty was the son of Amenemhet I and Queen Nefrutoten. Senwosret served as co-ruler with his father for more than ten years.

He received news of his father’s death while away on a campaign. During his reign he extended Egypt’s borders to the area between the Second and Third Cataract. He established the fortress of Kerma. Senwosret mined gold, copper and granite.

After securing Egypt’s borders he erected buildings along the Nile and refurbished existing temples. He built a funerary complex at Lisht.

His pyramid consisted of separate compartments filled with sand and then covered with limestone. A second layer of stone completed the structure. His son, Amenemhet II, served with him as co-ruler and assumed the throne when Senwosret died in the 45th year of his reign

Amenemhet II
1875-1840 B.C.
Amenemhet II was co-ruler with his father Senwosret I for three years. Upon his father’s death, Amenemhet II became the third king of the 12th Dynasty. His only campaign was in Nubia.
Instead of military expeditions he directed his attention toward internal affairs and the nomarchs.

These nomarchs were nobles of Egyptian provinces, or nomes, and served as the kings representatives. Raising their own armies, they defended their own borders. During times of weak kings the nomarchs became more independent and were easily provoked by royal orders. Amenemhet was buried in Dashur.

Senwosret II
1842-1836 B.C.
Senwosret II was the fourth king of the 12th Dynasty. He ruled the country from 1842 till 1836 BC. The king ruled the country before he claimed his throne during the period when his father, Amenemhet II, was ill before he died.

Senwosret II conducted many agricultural projects in Faiyum that transferred thousands of marshlands into fields. His goal was to establish a strong economic base for Ancient Egypt.
The king conducted many military campaigns in Nubia and extended his kingdom’s border further south. Also, Senwosret II protected the minerals in Nubia and Sinai and continued extracting natural resources from them. He built a pyramid near Faiyum which was destroyed by Ramesses II.

1836-1817 B.C.
The fifth king of the 12th Dynasty was the son of Senwosret II. Being a “man of the people” he supported the rise of the middle class. These people were farmers, artisans, merchants and traders. Also active militarily, he extended Egypt’s borders in Nubia to Wadi Halfa. He built mortuary complexes at Dashur for his wives and daughters.

Amenemhet III 'AmenmhatIII'
1817-1772 B.C.
The son of Senwosret III and Queen Sebekshedty-Neferu, this sixth king of the 12th Dynasty was to be the most remarkable king of that era. He completed the building of the great waterwheels of the Faiyum, thus diverting the flood waters of the Nile into Lake Moeris.

The irrigation system and an overflow canal, was used to drain the marshes. An estimated 153,600 acres of fertile land was reclaimed from the water. Amenemhet raised two colossal statues of himself nearby to celebrate this feat.

Among his many achievements was the famous Labyrinth, also known as the Pyramid of Hawara, one of the great wonders of the ancient world. The central burial chamber of the pyramid, carved from a single block of granite, is estimated to have weighed 110 tons.

His pyramidal tomb was built at Dashur, which he abandoned in favor of the Hawara Pyramid. Amenemhet mined copper from the Sinai and local mines, and had many quarries. He provided the workers with housing and protection from the Bedouins.

1763-1759 B.C.
Neferusobek was the eighth queen of the 12th Dynasty. She ruled the country from 1763 till 1759 BC. Some historians say that she was the daughter of Amenemhet III and half sister of Amenemhet IV, her predecessor. Neferusobek was mentioned in the Karnak, Saqqara and Turin List of Kings. Three statues and a sphinx for her were found near the Nile Delta.

13th dynasty
Neferhotep I
1696-1686 B.C.
Neferhotep I was the 22nd king of the 13th Dynasty. He ruled Egypt from 1696 till 1686 BC. He was the son of a temple priest in Abydos. His father’s position helped him gain the royal image as the king because he did not have any royal blood in his family.

Neferhotep is inscribed on some stones discovered near Byblos. Also, they found other stones in Aswan that were carved with texts which documents all his reign. It seems that all his power reached the Delta in the north and the Nubian Nome in the south.

Ay 1664-1641 B.C.
Ay was the 27th king of the 13th Dynasty. He ruled Egypt from 1664 till 1641 BC. The king did not have any royal blood.

He was from Avaris, a city located in Eastern Delta that was heavily populated with Heksus. The Heksus are the Asiatics who controlled Northern Egypt till 1500 BC. Ay built his pyramid near Avaris but only ruins remain from his temple.

15th dynasty
Salitis was the 1st king of the 15th Dynasty. Northern Egypt was under Heksus rulers throughout the Dynasty. The Heksus are the Asiatics that invaded through Sinai and settled in the Delta.

The Heksus controlled all the Nile Delta and Northern Egypt. By time, they got more powerful and set their own Dynasties (from the 14th till the end of the 16th Dynasty).

Some scholars mentione Salitis’s name as "Sultan". This is an Arabic translation of the phrase ’powerful king’ because the king was considered to be the founder of the Great Heksus Dynasty. Salitis captured Memphis and placed himself in higher rank than any of the royal families in the Capital.

Apachnan was the third king of the 15th Dynasty. He was considered one of the "Great Heksus". Apachnan’s power reached beyond his kingdom in Northern Egypt. Archeologists found some scarabs and seals bearing his name in Northern and Southern Egypt and some Mediterranean islands such as Crete.

Khamudi was the last king of the 15th Dynasty and was the last king of the "Great Heksus". The king was listed in the Turin Canon. Khamudi’s Obelisk was discovered near the ancient city of Avaris. The king was responsible for negotiation of the Hiksus army’s withdrawal from Avaris and most of the Delta.

Khamudi was pressured to withdraw due to the successful campaign of Ahmose I’s army on his capital. However, the southern Pharaohs did not keep their agreement and pushed the Heksus out of Egypt and raided their cities in the Middle East for several years by the Theben kings of the 18th Dynasty.

17th dynasty
Tao II
The fourteenth king of the Theban Dynasty, ruling Egypt contemporaneously with the Hyksos 15th and 16th Dynasties, was the son of Tao I and Queen Tetisheri.

When Tao received word from Apophis, ruler of the Hyksos capital in Avaris, that the hippopotami in the sacred pool at Thebes kept him awake with their snoring, Tao regarded it as an insult.

The hippopotami were 400 miles from Apophis sleeping chambers! Tao declared war but was soon killed. His mummy shows evidence of blows by battle-axes, spears and lances. His ribs, vertebrae and skull were fractured. His heir, Kamose, assumed the throne and the war, and was victorious.

The 15th king of the 17th Dynasty was the son of Sekenenretao and Queen Ahhotep and was the brother of Ahmose I. Kamose’s father had been at war with the Hyksos. When Sekenenretao died suddenly, Kamose assumed the throne and the war. Kamose went into war with horse and chariot.

His chariots were lighter and more maneuverable than in previous eras. He also had the advantage of having the Medjay as allies. These Nubian forces were ferocious hand to hand combatants that fought in the front lines. Kamose overcame the enemy at Nefrusy and moved into the oasis of Baharia.

He then sailed up and down the Nile in search of traitors. When Kamose died, either of natural causes or of battle wounds, without an heir, his brother, Ahmose I took the throne. Kamose was the last king of the 17th Dynasty. Ahmose I was to begin the New Kingdom.

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I
1514-1493 B.C.
The son of Ahmose and Queen Ahmose Nefretiri was the second king of the 18th Dynasty. Facing a Libyan uprising his first year as king, Amenhotep successfully overcame the Libyans on two occasions and prevented an invasion in the Delta area.

Next in line for battle were the Nubians. Upon his victory, Amenhotep brought captives back to Thebes. Amenhotep was given the rare honor of being declared a titular god upon his death by the priests. His accomplishments included elaborate building complexes at the Karnak Temple in Thebes. He utilized different types of stone including alabaster from Hatnub.

He repaired and restored many ancient temples along the Nile. He was the first pharaoh to build his tomb separate from the temple.

Because of the looting of tombs, he had his built in an inconspicuous place in Thebes. Amenhotep’s son died in infancy so his military commander Thutmose, who was married to the king’s sister, assumed the throne upon Amenhotep’s death.

Thutmose I
1493-1481 B.C.
The third king of the 18th Dynasty was a commoner by birth. He had married Ahmose, a sister of Amenhotep I, and was named king when the king died childless. Ahmose bore him two sons who were passed over for Thutmose II, who was born to Mutnofret.

Thutmose built an extension to the temple of Amon at Karnak. He added pylons, courts and statues. He led a campaign into Nubia where he penetrated beyond the Third Cataract. He defeated the Nubian chief in a hand to hand combat and returned to Thebes with the body of the fallen chief hanging on the prow of his ship.

His greatest campaigns were in the Delta. Warring against the Hyksos he subdued tribes and finally reached the Euphrates River. To commemorate his victory he built a hypostyle hall at Karnak, made entirely of cedar wood columns. His remains were found in the cache, with others, at Deir el Bahri. Thutmose brought Egypt a sense of stability and his military campaigns healed the wounds of Thebians.

1473-1458 B.C.
Hatshepsut, the fifth ruler of the 18th Dynasty, was the daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose. As was common in royal families, she married her half-brother, Thutmose II, who had a son, Thutmose III, by a minor wife. When Thutmose II died in 1479 B.C. his son, Thutmose III, was appointed heir.

However, Hatshepsut was appointed regent due to the boy’s young age. They ruled jointly until 1473 when she declared herself pharaoh. Dressed in men’s attire, Hatshepsut administered affairs of the nation, with the full support of the high priest of Amon, Hapuseneb and other officials.

When she built her magnificent temple at Deir el Bahari in Thebes she made reliefs of her divine birth as the daughter of Amon. Hatshepsut disappeared in 1458 B.C. when Thutmose III, wishing to reclaim the throne, led a revolt. Thutmose had her shrines, statues and reliefs mutilated.

Amenhotep II
1427-1392 B.C.
Amenhotep, the seventh king of the 18th Dynasty, was a fierce ruler that excelled in both horsemanship and archery. While a prince, he was given the command of the naval base near Memphis.

In his first year as king the Asiatics rebelled, but to no avail. He spent his second year in Syria overcoming several uprisings. His victorious return to Egypt was indicated by the captive officers that were hanging upside down on the prow of his ship. The same were beheaded in a ceremony by Amenhotep’s own hand. His son, Thutmose IV assumed the throne when Amenhotep died at the age of 45. His remains show signs of a systemic disease which probably attributed to his death. He built a court in the Temple of Luxor, that was later decorated by Tutankhamun and Horemheb. Amenhotep II’s tomb is in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes.

1382-1344 B.C.
The ninth king of the 18th dynasty was the son of Thutmose IV and Queen Mutemwiya. He married Tiy, daughter of Yuya, who was a chancellor of the north and was a priest of Hermonthis and Amon.

Egypt was enjoying a peaceful time during Amenhotep’s reign, thus allowing him to concentrate on more artistic renewals. He married daughters of foreign kings, including a Mitanni princess and one from Babylon. This solidified his international standings.
During his reign he enlarged many temples. He built Malkata on the western shore of Thebes, south of Medinet Habu. This complex was a miniature city with offices, houses, chambers, chapels and apartments.

Close to Malkata he built a lake for his queen. Next to the lake he built a palace for his harem and a palace for Queen Tiy. He built the famous Colossi of Memnon and is accredited with building the Temple of Luxor. Amenhotep spent years improving Karnak, by adding temples and a row of sphinxes that linked it to the temple of Amon at Luxor. Amenhotep died in his mid fifties. His heir was the infamous Akhenaten.

Burial : Akhetaten (el-Amarna); subsequently Valley of the Kings (Thebes)
Amenhotep IV-better known as Akhenaten, the new name he took early on in his reign-ushered in a revolutionary period in Egyptian history. The Amarna Interlude, as it is often called, saw the removal of the seat of government to a short-lived new capital city, Akhetaten (modern el-Amarna), the introduction of a new art style, and the elevation of the cult of the sun disc, the Aten, to pre-eminent status in Egyptian religion. This last heresy in particular was to bring down on Akhenaten and his immediate successors the opprobrium of later kings.

The young prince was at least the second son of Amenhotep III by his chief wife, Tiy: an elder brother, prince Tuthmosis, had died prematurely (strangely, a whip bearing his name was found in Tutankhamun’s tomb).

There is some controversy over whether or not the old king took his son into partnership on the throne in a co-regency there are quite strong arguments both for and against.

A point in favor of a co-regency is the appearance during the latter years of Amenhotep III’s reign of artistic styles that are subsequently seen as part of the ’revolutionary’ Amarna art introduced by Akhenaten; on the other hand, both ’traditional’ and ’revolutionary’ Art styles could easily have coexisted during the early years of Akhenaten’s reign.

At any rate, if there had been a co-regency, it would not have been for longer than the short period before the new king assumed his preferred name of Akhenaten (’Servant of the Aten’) in Year 5.

The beginning of Akhenaten’s reign marked no great discontinuity with that of his predecessors. Not only was he crowned at Karnak (temple of the god Amun) but, like his father he married a lady of non-royal blood, Nefertiti, the daughter of the vizier Ay. Ay seems to have been a brother of Queen Tiy (Anen was another) and a son of Yuya and Tuya. Nefertiti’s mother is not known; she may have died in childbirth or shortly afterwards, since Nefertiti seems to have been brought up by another wife of Ay named Tey, who would then be her stepmother.

The cult of the Aten
The tenth king of the 18th Dynasty was perhaps the most controversial because of his break with traditional religion. Some say that he was the most remarkable king to sit upon Egypt’s throne. There can be little doubt that the new king was far more of a thinker and philosopher than his forebears. Akhenaten was traditionally raised by his parents, Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy (1382-1344 B.C.) by worshipping Amen.

Akhenaten, however, preferred Aten, the sun god that was worshipped in earlier times. Amenhotep III had recognized the growing power of the priesthood of Amun and had sought to curb it; his son was to take the matter a lot further by introducing a new monotheistic cult of sun-worship that was incarnate in the sun’s disc, the Aten.

When early in his reign he changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning “He Who is of Service to Aten”, he also renamed his queen to Nefer-Nefru-Aten, which is “Beautiful is the Beauty of Aten.”

1336-1327 B.C.
The 12th king of the 18th Dynasty was only eight or nine years old at his succession. His father, Smenkhkare, died at the age of 25 and the cause remains a mystery. Tutankhamun was married to Ankhesenamon, the third daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

The couple originally lived at el Amarna but later moved to Memphis where they refurbished the apartments of Amenhotep III. The Restoration Stela gives an account of his effort to stabilize the government and to restore the temples and honors of the old gods after the Amarna period. He paid the priest and palace staff from his own pockets.

He built a mortuary temple close to Medinet Habu, with two colossal statues, but they were usurped by his successors. Tutankhamun died at the age of 19 by a head injury. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings. Two mummified fetuses were found in coffins that had been sealed by his name. These are believed to have been his children that were born prematurely.

1323-1295 B.C.
The fourteenth king of the 18th Dynasty was chief of the army during Tutankhamun’s reign. When Tutankhamun died, Ay succeeded the throne. Ay favored Horemheb and kept him on as a military leader.

When Ay died without an heir, Horemheb was made king. Restoring order was his main objective. Once accomplished, Horemheb moved to Memphis and began work on internal affairs. He returned properties of the temples to the rightful priests and lands to the rightful owners.

He had restoration projects and building additions in Karnak. He erected shrines and a temple to Ptah. He built tombs at Thebes, in the Valley of the Kings, and Memphis.

He was noted for admonishing high ranking officials against cheating the poor and misappropriating the use of slaves and properties. He promised the death penalty for such offenses. Horemheb had no heir so he appointed a military leader to succeed him. That leader was Ramesses I.

1323-1295 B.C.
The fourteenth king of the 18th Dynasty was chief of the army during Tutankhamun’s reign. When Tutankhamun died, Ay succeeded the throne. Ay favored Horemheb and kept him on as a military leader.

When Ay died without an heir, Horemheb was made king. Restoring order was his main objective. Once accomplished, Horemheb moved to Memphis and began work on internal affairs. He returned properties of the temples to the rightful priests and lands to the rightful owners.

He had restoration projects and building additions in Karnak. He erected shrines and a temple to Ptah. He built tombs at Thebes, in the Valley of the Kings, and Memphis.

He was noted for admonishing high ranking officials against cheating the poor and misappropriating the use of slaves and properties. He promised the death penalty for such offenses. Horemheb had no heir so he appointed a military leader to succeed him. That leader was Ramesses I.

19th dynasty
Ramesses I
1295-1294 B.C.
The first king of the 19th Dynasty was the son of a military commander named Seti. Ramesses entered the military service and worked his way up to commander of troops, superintendent of the cavalry and eventually general. A short time later he became vizier to King Horemheb.

He was also Primate of Egypt, which was the high priest of Amon, and was in charge of all the temples in Egypt. Horemheb died with no heir so Ramesses assumed the throne.

His queen, Sitre, was the mother of Seti I, who was already a veteran military commander. Ramesses was originally buried in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb was later vandalized so the priests removed the body to Deir el Bahri.

(Menmaatre) 1294-1279 B.C.
The second king of the 19th Dynasty was the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre. Like his father before him, Seti was a good military leader. On a campaign in Asia, Seti took three divisions of 60,000 men each into battle. He reoccupied Egyptian posts and garrisoned cities in the Syrian territory. He plundered Palestine and brought Damascus back into Egyptian control.

He reconciled with the Hittites who were becoming the most powerful state in the region. Seti I and his heir, Ramesses II campaigned against Kadesh. In Karnak he completed his father’s plan by converting the court between the second and third pylons into a vast hypostyle hall. He built his vast mortuary complex at Abydos.

In Thebes, he built his tomb, located in the Valley of the Kings. Cut 300 feet into the cliffs, it was the largest tomb in the area. Buried with him were over 700 Shabti. These were carved stone or wooden figures that were to accompany him to the afterlife to comply with the requests from the gods. His tomb in the Valley of the Kings was vandalized and his body was relocated to Deir el Bahri.

1279-1213 B.C.
The son of Seti I and Queen Tuya was the third king of the 19th Dynasty. Called Ramesses the Great, he lived to reach 96 years old, had 200 wives and concubines, 96 sons and 60 daughters.

One son, Prince Kha-m-was, was a high priest of Ptah, governor of Memphis, and was in charge of the restoration of the Pyramid of Unas. This son was buried in The Serapeum.

Ramesses II outlived the first thirteen of his heirs. Ramesses was named co-ruler with his father, Seti I, early in his life. He accompanied his father on numerous campaigns in Libya and Nubia. At the age of 22 Ramesses went on a campaign in Nubia with two of his own sons. Seti I and Ramesses built a palace in Avaris where Ramesses I had started a new capital. When Seti I died in 1290 B.C., Ramesses assumed the throne and began a series of wars against the Syrians. The famous Battle of Kadesh is inscribed on the walls of Ramesses temple.

Ramesses’ building accomplishments are two temples at Abu Simbel, the hypostyle hall at Karnak, a mortuary complex at Abydos, the Colossus of Ramesses at Memphis, a vast tomb at Thebes, additions at the Luxor Temple, and the famous Ramesseum. Among Ramesses’ wives were Nefertari, Queen Istnofret, his two daughters, Binthanath and Merytamon, and the Hittite princess, Maathornefrure.

Ramesses was originally buried in the Valley of the Kings. Because of the widespread looting of tombs during the 21st Dynasty the priests removed Ramesses body and took it to a holding area where the valuable materials such, as gold-leaf and semi-precious inlays, were removed.

The body was then rewrapped and taken to the tomb of an 18th Dynasty queen, Inhapi. The bodies of Ramesses I and Seti I were done in like fashion and all ended up at the same place. Amenhotep I’s body had been placed there as well at an earlier time.

Seventy-two hours later, all of the bodies were again moved, this time to the Royal Cache that was inside the tomb of High Priest Pinudjem II. The priests documented all of this on the linen that covered the bodies. This “systematic” looting by the priests was done in the guise of protecting the bodies from the "common" thieves

1213-1203 B.C.
The fourth king of the 19th Dynasty was in his fifties when he assumed the throne. His father, Ramesses, was long-lived and outlived his first 13 sons.

Merenptah, the fourteenth son, was militarily active while a prince. Famine had driven the Sea Peoples and the Libyans across the Egyptian borders. Egypt retaliated with vengeance, overcoming the threat. The battle is recorded at Karnak. The Israel Stela is associated with Merenptah.

The stela records a skirmish in Palestine and mentions Israel. This is the only known mention of Israel in Egyptian monuments, and confirms that Israel was established in their own domain at the time of Merenptah’s reign. Merenptah’s tomb is in the Valley of the Kings.

20th dynasty
Ramesses I
1186-1184 B.C.
Refusing to acknowledge the previous two pharaohs, the first king of the 20th Dynasty dated the beginning of his reign to that of Seti II. He probably usurped the throne from Tworse, Seti II’s widow, and later queen-pharaoh.

He was at an advanced age when he took the throne but managed to accomplish peace and order in a short period of time. His tomb was not completed when he died so he was placed in that Tworse’s.

His coffin was found in Amenophis II’s tomb but his mummy has not been found. Setakht was the father of Ramesses III and the husband of Ramesses’ mother, Tiye-merenese.

1184-1153 B.C.
The second king of the 20th Dynasty was the son of Sethnakhte and was the last great king of the New Kingdom. Ramesses assumed the throne after his father’s short two-year reign. Ramesses fought the Libyans twice during his reign. He compared himself to Mont, the god of war and was confident in his abilities.

He overcame an attack by the Sea Peoples in his eighth year as pharaoh. After defeating the Sea People (of which he took many captives) he attacked the Palestinian tribes and was again victorious.

Ramesses received tributes from all conquered peoples. Egypt, however, was experiencing financial problems. Workers were striking for pay and there was a general unrest of all social classes. Consequently, an unsuccessful harem revolt led to the deaths of many, including officials and women.

During his thirty-one year reign, Ramesses built the vast mortuary complex at Medinet Habu, three shrines at Karnak that were dedicated to the gods Amon, Mut and Khons, and a palace at Leontopolis, just north of Cairo. Ramesses III’s tomb is in the Valley of the Kings.

His mummy was found in a cache at Deir el-Bahri and is now in the Cairo Museum. Ramesses III is thought to have been about sixty-five years of age at his death.

Ramesses IV
1153-1147 B.C.
Ramesses IV was the son of Ramesses III. His reign lasted no more than six years. He did survive a harem conspiracy which was designed to spoil his claims to the throne.

He placed a document in the tomb of his father which is now known as the Papyrus Harris I, that gives an elaborate account of the reign of Ramesses III. Ramesses IV is thought to have been in his forties when he became king. There are two stelas that were found at Abydos by Mariette that proclaim his piety and exceptional devotion to the gods. The quarrying of the stone is said to have involved more than 8,000 people.

Ramesses IV caused the high-priest Mont , as well as other capable officials and scribes to visit the site. There were 5,000 soldiers that were most likely sent to haul the huge stones over the rough desert roads. He is also known for the continuation of the Khonsu at Karnak, which was begun by his father, Ramesses III.

A temple at Asasif, which is on the western bank of the Nile at Thebes, was erected by Ramesses. Ramesses’ tomb was found in the Valley of the Kings and his mummy is now in the Cairo Museum. The remains indicate that Ramesses was a small man who was bald, had a long nose and good teeth.

Ramesses V
1147-1143 B.C.
Ramesses V is thought to have reigned no more than four years. He was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Ta-Opet. The mummy was found in the tomb of Amenophis II and is now located in the Cairo Museum. The mummy shows that he died of smallpox at about the age of 35.

His tomb was unfinished and was in the Biban el-Moluk, but was annexed by Ramesses VI. All that is found of his reign is a stela that was discovered at Gebel Silsilh.

Ramesses VI
1143-1136 B.C.
The fifth king of the 20th Dynasty usurped the throne from his nephew, Ramesses V. However, the son of Ramesses III allowed mortuary ceremonies to continue for Ramesses V, who was only on the throne for four years.

He usurped cartouches of previous kings and left his name on inscriptions in the Sinai. His built statues in Bubastis, Coptos, Karnak and Nubia. After his tomb was vandalized, the priests had to pin the corpse on a board in order to provide the remains with a decent burial.

Ramesses VII
1136-1129 B.C.
Ramesses VII is probably the son of Ramesses VI and was the sixth king of the Twentieth Dynasty. He built a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but he did not build any other monuments. He did have a son that did not live to succeed him.

Ramesses VIII
mun) 1129-1126 B.C.
Ramesses VIII was the seventh king of the Twentieth Dynasty and was probably Ramesses III’s son. His mummy has never been found and all that remains of his reign is an inscription at Medinet Habu and some plaques. His tomb was found but was very modest.

Ramesses IX
1126-1108 B.C.
Ramesses IX was the eighth king of the Twentieth Dynasty. He is thought to have reigned for about seventeen or more years. During his reign, there was a scandal in which the tombs in the Theban necropolis were being robbed. There were also campaigns by Libyan bandits. He had a son, Montuherkhopshef, who did not live to succeed Ramesses. His tomb was found in the Valley of the Kings.

Ramesses X
1108-1099 B.C.
Ramesses X was the ninth king of the Twentieth Dynasty. During his reign the workers went on strike for non-paid wages. Few monuments of Ramesses have survived. He left a tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Ramesses XI
1099-1069 B.C.
Ramesses XI was the tenth and the last king of the Twentieth Dynasty as well as the New Kingdom. His reign was a period of turmoil. Ramesses was not a very energetic or vital ruler. The viceroy of Nubia, Panehsi, went from Elephantine to Thebes to try to stop the unrest that was arising from contention over the region between the high priest of Amoun and others.

At the same time there was a famine called the "Year of the Hyena." Hrihor was left in Thebes by Panehsi to control the affairs there. He soon assumed the role of the high priest of Amon and eventually became the vizier as well. This was the cause of the eventual downfall of Panehsi. Panehsi rebelled and stopped Egypt’s domination in Nubia.

Hrihor administered the affairs of Egypt while Ramesses XI remained in seclusion. Upon the death of Ramesses, Hrihor and Smendes divided Egypt between themselves. Ramesses was technically pharaoh until his death, but Hrihor was the ruler of Upper Egypt for all practical purposes. Ramesses’ death marked the end of the Twentieth Dynasty and the New Kingdom. His tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings.

21st dynasty
Ramesses I
1070-1044 B.C.
Smedes was an official during the reign of Ramesses XI of the 20th Dynasty. Smedes began his rule in Tanis. There he was the high priest of Amon and the viceroy of Lower Egypt.

Hrihor was also a high priest of Amon and the viceroy of Upper Egypt. Together these two kept Ramesses XI in seclusion on his estates. Upon the death of Ramesses, Smedes and Hrihor divided Egypt among them, and this was the beginning of the Twenty-first Dynasty.

As a native of Djede, Smedes could have no personal right to the throne. The only record of Smedes’ reign is a damaged inscription on a pillar in a quarry at Gebelen.

1040 B.C.

Amenemnisu was the second ruler of the Twenty-first Dynasty. He is thought to have ruled for 4 years possibly as the co-regent with Psusennes I.

Psusennes I
(Akheperre-setepanamun Psibkhaemne)
1040-992 B.C.
Psusennes I was the third king of the Twenty-first Dynasty and is probably the best known of all this dynasty’s kings. This is because of the discovery of his intact tomb during the excavation of Tanis. His mummy was found in the tomb and was that of an old man.

Also is the tomb was a second burial chamber was for his sister and wife, Queen Mutnodjme. At some time later, her mummy and funerary objects were removed. King Amunemope’s mummy and funerary objects were placed there after he was moved from another tomb that was not too far away.

There were also several other mummies found in this tomb as well. These mummies were thought to have been placed here to be protected from the destruction of the other tombs around.

993-984 B.C.
Amenope was the fourth king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. It is possible that he wrote one of the most famous Egyptian books of wisdom, known as the Instruction of Amenope. In this book, advice is offered to his son on integrity, honesty, self-control and kindness. He teaches that it is reliance on god that this tranquillity and the freedom from overanxiety can be attained.

978-959 B.C.
Siamun is listed as the sixth king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. Very little is known about his reign except that he is the one who sealed up the great Der el-Bahri cache. He is believed to have reigned for seventeen years.

Psusennes II
959-945 B.C.
Psusennes II was the seventh and final king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. He is believed to have ruled for 14 years. There are inscriptions on monuments which are the only information showing his reign.

22nd dynadty
Ramesses I
Shoshenq I
945-924 B.C.
Shoshenq I was the first king of the Twenty-second Dynasty who ruled for twenty-one years. His name appeared first in a long inscription found at Abydos while he was the ’great chief of the Meshwesh, prince of princes.’ His father was Nemrat, who was the son of the lady Mehetemwaskhe, died and Shoshenq asked the king at that time to allow a funerary cult to be built at Abydos in his honor.

The king must have been the last Psusennes of the Twenty-first Dynasty. Shoshenq’s son had married Psusennes’ daughter, Makare. It is possible that the transition from the Twenty-first to the Twenty-second Dynasty was a peaceful one. Shoshenq’s wife, Karoma, was the mother of Osorkon I who was Shoshenq’s successor. Shoshenq did considerable building in Egypt.

He added a new colonnaded forecourt with a triumphal gate that formed an extension of the hypostyle hall in the Amun temple. No work had been done at Karnak since the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty. He also had a successful campaign against the kingdom of Judah and the kingdom of Israel. His tomb is located at Tanis

924-909 B.C.

Osorkon I is in the second king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Between the reigns of Osorkon I and Takelot I, a Shoshenq II is often shown as a co-regent for a brief period of time.

Takelot I
909-? B.C.
Takelot I was the third king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He was the successor to Osorkon I, but is shown to have had a co-regent, Sheshonq II, for a brief period before his reign began.

Shoshenq II
?-883 B.C.
Shoshenq II is thought to have been the co-regent during the period between Osorkon I and Takelot I during the Twenty-second Dynasty. His mummy was found at Tanis in the tomb of Psusennes I.

Psusennes II
959-945 B.C.
Osorkon II was the fifth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. There are inscriptions in the hypostyle hall of the Luxor temple that indicate that there was a very high inundation of the Nile during the third year of his reign. The inscription says, "All the temples of Thebes were like marshes."

During his twenty-second year, he celebrated the Sed Festival. He built a granite gateway at the great temple at Bubastis and decorated the gateway with scenes of this festival. During his reign, there was weakness internally and there were threats from the Assyrians.

Egypt’s borders did not extend as far as they once had and tried to resist the increasing pressures from the east by joining the states of Palestine and Syria. It is possible that a co-regent ruled with Osorkon II named Harsiese, who was the high priest of Amun at Thebes.

It is possible that Harsiese was the son of Osorkon. His tomb was found at Tanis. It was constructed of large stones with several chambers inside. Several other bodies were found inside such as King Takelot II.

Takelot II
860-835 B.C.
Takelot II was the sixth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He was the father to the high priest of Amun, Osorkon. This Osorkon was responsible for the longest inscription on the Bubastite Gate. According to his inscription, during the fifteenth year of Takelot’s reign, there was warfare in the North and South and a great convulsion broke out in the land.

The remains of Takelot II were found in a usurped sarcophagus from the Middle Kingdom in Tanis. His canopic jars and ushabti-figures were found with him as well.

Shoshenq III
835-783 B.C.
Shoshenq III was the seventh king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He is thought to have ruled for fifty-two years. During the twenty-eighth year of his reign, an Apis bull was born. This is recorded on the Serapeum stela by a priest named Pediese. His tomb was found at Tanis and was similar in structure to those of Psusennes I and Osorkon II.

(Usermare-setepenre Pimay)(Pemay)
783-773 B.C.
Pami was the eighth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He reigned for approximately six years following the fifty-two year reign of Shoshenq III. Pemai is translated to "The Cat".

Shoshenq IV
773-735 B.C.
Shoshenq IV was the ninth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. The Serapeum stela of Pasenhor is dated as the thirty-seventh year of Shoshenq IV.

This shows that he reigned at least this long. In the year 732, toward the end of his reign, an Assyrian, Tiglath-pileser III took Damascus and killed Rezin. He then captured many cities of northern Israel and took the people to Assyria.

The Egyptian troops had at one time joined forces with Damascus, Israel and some other states to resist Shalmaneser III at Qarqar. There is no indication that Shoshenq IV made any attempt to help the former allies.

23rd dynasty
Pedubaste I
828-803 B.C.
Pedubaste I was the first king of the Twenty-third Dynasty. He is mentioned several times in the inscriptions at Karnak. Pedubaste is thought to have been the son of the high priest of Amun, Harsiese.

24th dynasty
Shepsesre Tefnakht
725-720 B.C.
Tefnakht was the first king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. In the Piankhy stela, he is called the "chief of the West," "chief of Me," and "chief of Sais." He also gave himself titles as prophets and royal titles. It is thought that his vigorous expansionist activity was the cause of an invasion from the South.

Wahkare Bakenranef
720-715 B.C.
Bakenranef was the second king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. His name was found on a vase that was found in an Etruscan tomb at Tarquinia which is located 100 kilometers northwest of Rome. Papyrus plants on the vase suggest the area of the Delta. He is shown in the company of gods and goddesses, such as goddess Neith of Sais.

25th dynasty
Shebaka (Shabaka)
712-698 B.C.
Shebaka was the first king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. During his reign, he undertook some building projects. The Fourth Pylon at Karnak has an inscription that tells of Shebaka’s restoration of the gate.

He also started work on the second pylon in front of the temple of Thutmose III at Medinet Habu. Shebaka’s sister, Amunirdis I held a very important position politically as well as religiously. She was called "god’s wife of Amun" at Thebes. Her funerary temple was in front of the temple of Ramesses III Medinet Habu.

Shebitku (Shabataka)
698-690 B.C.
Shebitku was the second king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. He was the nephew and successor of Shebaka. During Shebaka’s reign, there was a policy of conciliation and cooperation with the Assyrians.

This kept the Assyrians away from coming further into Egypt. Shebitku had a different policy; resistance. A stela from Kawa tells of Shebitku asking his brothers, including Taharqa, to come to him at Thebes from Nubia. The army went with Taharqa.

On another stela a story was told that when Jerusalem was under attack by the Assyrians, the king of Ethiopia (Kush) came against Sennacherib (of Assyria). Shebitku joined in the resistance against Sennacherib and an Egyptian army was sent to Palestine, led by Shebitku’s brother, Taharqa.

690-664 B.C.
Taharqa was the brother of Shebitku and the third king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. Shebitku died and Taharqa was crowned. Taharqa is responsible for the buildings done both in Nubia and in Egypt.

He built the colonnade in the first court of the temple of Amun at Karnak. There is one column that stands twenty-one meters high and is still standing. During his reign, the Assyrians threatened Egypt once again.

The Assyrians were successful in one invasion in which they captured Memphis, wounded Taharqa and stole his family and property. Taharqa survived the attack. It is thought that Taharqa died in 664 BC and was buried in his pyramid at Nuri near Napata.

27th dynasty
525-522 B.C.
Cambyses was the first ruler of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. He was the ruler of Persia and treated the last ruler of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, Psammetichus III (Psamtik III) with some consideration. Psammetichus then tried to revolt and Cambyses caused him to be killed.

There is an inscription on a statue that tells of Cambyses going to Sais to worship Neith and restore the revenues and festivals of the temple. But according to Herodotus, Cambyses did many reprehensible things against Egyptian religion and customs and eventually went mad.

Darius I
521-486 B.C.
Darius I was the second ruler of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. He was son of Hystaspes and a member of the Cyrus family. He was in Egypt while Cambyses ruled and Darius treated the Egyptians with respect and goodwill.

During his reign he undertook the completion of the canal that extended from the Nile to the Red Sea. He also expanded the Serapeum at Saqqara as well as erected a large temple of Amun in el-Kharga, a southwestern oasis.

During his reign, the Persians were defeated in the battle of Marathon. This showed that the great empire was not invincible and a revolt in Egypt followed.

Xerxes I
486-466 B.C.
Xerxes I was the third ruler of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. The revolt that began during the reign of Darius I, who was Xerxes’ father, was finally laid to rest during the second year of Xerxes I’s reign. It is said that the slaves’ lives were much harder during the time of Xerxes. It is not certain whether this is true since Xerxes was much more involved elsewhere and paid little attention to Egypt.

Darius II
424-404 B.C.
Darius II was the fifth king of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. During his reign, he did some work on the temple of Amun in the Kharga oasis. There were also many foreigners in Egypt during this time, mostly Greeks and Jews. He died in the spring of 404 BC.

28th dynasty
Amyrtaios (Amyrteos)
404-399 B.C.
Amyrtaios was the only ruler of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty. He is thought to have been a Libyan. He ruled Egypt from Sais for six years. He began his reign after the death of Darius II. A renewed revolt occupied in Egypt. They achieved independence for a short time again.

On the Elephantine Papyri, there is documentation of a loan contract that is written in the year 5 of this king. This is an indication that he was recognized in Upper and Lower Egypt. He must have driven the Persians out of the whole country.

29th dynasty
Nepherites I (Nef’aurud)
399-393 B.C.
Nepherites I was the first ruler of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. Nepherites I sent a gift to the Spartans after an allegiance had been entered into with Sparta against Persia. This gift was lost to the Persians after the ships from Egypt approached Rhodes. The Egyptians did not know that the Rhodians had defected to the Persians.

Hakoris (Hakor)(Achoris)(Hagor)
393-380 B.C.
There is some discrepancy as to whether Hakoris was the second in the third king of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. Psammuthis is the king with whom confusion is associated because he is shown to have ruled during the same year as Hakoris (393 BC).

Hakoris reigned for thirteen years and built many monuments which are found in all parts of Egypt. During his reign there was peace between Persia and Sparta.

Persia was free to move against Egypt and there was a three-year war between the two. Egypt was relatively strong during this time and became allies with Cyprus. Egypt was delivered from Persia. The tomb of Hakoris has not been found.

Nepherites II
380 B.C.
Nepherites II was the fourth and final ruler of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. He reigned for only four months before he was overthrown by the founder of the Thirtieth Dynasty.

He assumed the throne after the death of Hakoris, Nepherites’ father. The name Nepherites has an etymological meaning of "His great ones are prosperous".

30th dynasty
Nectanebo I (Nectanebus)(Nakhthorhebe)
380-362 B.C.
Nectanebo I was the first ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty and was a general from Sebennytus. He is thought to have been related to the family of Nepherites I. He imposed heavy taxes on the people of Egypt in order to conquer Syria from Persia.

In the spring of 373 BC, the Persian army moved in to attack Egypt. They got as far as the Mendesian mouth of the Nile. Two of the commanders of the Persian forces could not agree on their strategy. As the time passed, the Nile rose and flooded the Delta area. The Persians abandoned their efforts and left. The Egyptians had successfully turned back the Persians, with a little help from the Nile, and peace was established. Nectanebo restored and built many monuments throughout Egypt.

Teos (Tachos)(Djeho)
365-360 B.C.
Teos was the second ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty and was the son of his predecessor, Nectanebo I. After his father had died, Teos took over the throne and planned an attack on the Persians. He had the help of mercenaries from Greece, but his own generals disagreed with his leadership and the entire event was a fiasco.

He was deserted by both the Greeks and the Egyptians. He fled to Persia by way of Arabia and Artaxerxes II, the ruler of Persia, gave him refuge. He lived in Persia until his death.
Nectanebo II (Nectanebus)(Nekhthorhebe)
360-343 B.C.

Nectanebo II was the third and final ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty. He became king after Teos’ campaign into Persia which was a disaster. Teos fled to Persia and Nectanebo II returned to Egypt as Pharaoh. Nectanebo ruled for eighteen years and built many monuments in Egypt.
After the disaster with the Persians, he risked no further expeditions against the Syrians or the Palestinians. However, the Persians did attempt to subdue Egypt and this time succeeded. Cyprus and Phoenicia were also fighting against the Persians and were assisted with some troops from Nectanebo II. Artaxerxes III (Persian) destroyed these troops and moved against Egypt.

This time the Nile flooding had already passed and the Persian attack was made much more wisely that the last attack (Nectanebo I). The attack was made at three different points at the same time. Nectanebo II retreated to Memphis where he thought he would make a stand against the Persians. But, as cities successively, he gathered up as much of his possessions as he could and fled to Ethiopia.

31st dynasty
Ochus (Artaxerxes III)
343-338 B.C.
Ochus was the first ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty. He was the king of Persia for twenty years when the Persians defeated the Egyptians and Ochus became ruler over Egypt. He was the son of Artaxerxes II. He ruled over Egypt for six years. He was murdered in 338 BC by his own commander Bagoas in the summer of 338 BC.

338-336 B.C.
Arses was the second ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty and was the youngest son of Ochus. After Ochus was murdered, Arses succeeded him and ruled until he was murdered in 336 BC by his commander Bagoas.

He was deserted by both the Greeks and the Egyptians. He fled to Persia by way of Arabia and Artaxerxes II, the ruler of Persia, gave him refuge. He lived in Persia until his death.

Darius III
335-332 B.C.
Darius III Codomannus was the last ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty. He reigned for six years until the arrival of Alexander the Great. Alexander hunted Darius without result, for Darius was later murdered by one of his own generals: Bessus, the Satrap of Bactria.


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