This is the first and oldest mosque ever built on the land of Egypt. Erected in 642 AD (21 AH) by Amr Ibn al'As, the commander of the Muslim army that conquered Egypt, the mosque is also known as Taj al-Jawamie (Crown of Mosques, al-Jamie'al-Ateeq (the Ancient Mosque) and Masjid Ahl ar-Rayah (Mosque of Banner Holders).
The mosque is said to have been built on the site of Amr Ibn el-As's tent at Fustat, is the oldest existing mosque, not just in Cairo, but the entire African Continent. Located north of the Roman Fortress of Babylon, it is actually on the edge of Fustat, the temporary city founded by Amr, and was an Islamic learning center long before El-Azhar Mosque. It could hold up to 5,000 students.
The mosque was built in rectangular shape its length of about 45 meters and its width about 27 meters. The mosque was surrounded from its four sides with the road. It did not have a dish or a hollow niche nor the minaret. It has a platform.
The external walls of the mosque was built of mud-brick. It was also free of decoration .The height of the mosque from the inside is likely that to be three meters, such as the Prophet's mosque.
Since the time of the foundation of the mosque many additions and extensions took place.
Current layout of the mosque
It consists of a prominent main entrance that is located on the western side of the mosque which consists of a large open courtyard surrounded by four corridors with simple wooden roofs.
The largest of these Riwaqs is a qibla one and besides it there is to open Mihrabes adjacent to each wooden platform. On the qibla wall ,there are two paintings that dates back to the Mamluk era.
There are also on the northern east corner of the quibla Riwaq a dome that dates back to Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas.
However at the centre of the courtyard of the mosque there is a dome that is built in on eight round, marble columns, and the windows of the old mosque decorated with frescoes are still remnants located at the south wall.
Also the mosque gallery in Qiblah riwaq direction erected on the marble columns with different crowns from ancient groves.