24 April 2024 11:05 PM

Energy

Monday، 19 December 2022 - 02:28 PM

Energy is a fundamental pillar of economic and social development. Therefore, the development of primary energy resources and their proper management and use are among the most important policies and strategies for continuous development. In achieving economic and technological development, Egypt relies on several sources of available energy, namely electricity, oil and natural gas.

Electricity

Egypt used electricity in lighting since the early twentieth century, then electricity entered the field of agriculture and industry in 1930, and after 1960 the focus was on generating electricity from water sources, as huge water stations entered the field of work by establishing the Aswan Reservoir station in 1960 with an electric capacity of 340 megawatts, and the High Dam in 1968 with a capacity of 2100 megawatts.


In 1985, the hydropower stations were expanded, so the Aswan Reservoir Station (2) was established with a capacity of 270 megawatts, the Esna Barrage station, the Naga Hammadi station, and the Nagaa Hammadi barrage power station with a capacity of 64 megawatts in 2005/2006, as well as completing the renewal of the turbines of the power station. Electricity of the High Dam. Hydroelectric power stations represent about 18% of the total electric energy consumed in Egypt. Thermal power generation stations have also been established in Shubra Al-Khaima, Abu Sultan, Ataka, Abu Qir, East Cairo, Heliopolis, Talkha, Salhia, Port Said and Damanhour.

The state worked on implementing a number of electricity projects distributed in all governorates of Egypt to ensure the stability of electrical supply and improve its effort for the subscribers for all purposes of industrial, agricultural, commercial, and domestic development. The year 2007 witnessed the inauguration of the second phase of the North of Cairo power station. with a capacity of 750 megawatts, in addition to providing electrical supply to all factories, schools and educational facilities in various governorates, providing electrical supply to hotels and tourist villages, and extending electricity to slums, which is a reflection of the state's interest in developing and developing these areas and improving the living conditions of citizens, especially those with limited income. The Ministry of Electricity and Energy has completed the replacement and renewal of electricity networks in 7 governorates, with investments estimated at 98 million pounds, to serve 5.3 million subscribers.

Among the most prominent achievements of electricity is the operation of the North Cairo combined-cycle power plant “phase two” with a total capacity of 750 megawatts, the operation of the first and second steam units with a capacity of 250 megawatts, and the Nubariya power station with a combined cycle with a capacity of 1500 megawatts, with investments estimated at about 4.2 billion Egyptian pounds and producing energy of about 10.5 billion kWh exceeding the energy generated from the High Dam, as well as operating the first and second gas units of 250 megawatts at the Talkha power station with a combined cycle capacity of 750 megawatts, and completing the implementation of simple cycle constructions with a capacity of 500 megawatts at the Karimat (2) power station with a combined cycle capacity 750 megawatts, and the electrical generation capacities at the end of 2007 amounted to about 22,605 megawatts.

The electricity sector development strategy in the medium term in 2017 and the long term in 2027 focuses on the following:

Increasing the electrical energy generated from all sources by a rate ranging between 5% and 7% to meet the growing needs in various sectors.

Diversifying the patterns of thermal power generation plants (vehicle - steam) while providing an appropriate reserve to meet the maintenance programs and the obsolescence of the existing units and the expected investment expansions.

Diversifying the sources of electric energy production (thermal - water - wind - solar - biomass - nuclear) to reduce dependence on traditional thermal sources. Thermal generation of electricity represents about 90% of the total electrical energy generated at present.

It is targeted that the renewable energy should reach 20% of the total electric power generated in 2020, through the expansion of electricity generation projects from wind energy in the Red Sea regions of Jabal El-Zayt, the Gulf of Suez, east and west of the Nile.

Completing the implementation of contracted solar power generation stations. Expanding the establishment of new projects. Completing studies for the establishment of four nuclear reactors to generate electricity in the Dabaa region on the northwestern coast.

Planning for the establishment of four more reactors in Al-Nujaila area located 80 km west of Dabaa. Expansion in conducting research and studies on renewable energy and increasing energy efficiency in cooperation with the European Union. Stimulating the private sector to invest more in new and renewable energy production projects with the BOOT system and other developed systems for management, operation and ownership.

Diversification is taking place in the field of renewable energy by adding capacities of 2950 megawatts until 2017, including 2810 megawatts from wind energy and 140 megawatts from solar energy.  The New and Renewable Energy Authority undertakes the implementation of capacities of 1480 megawatts, and the private sector implements capacities of 1470 megawatts.

Rationalizing energy use in all fields by 5% by the end of 2015, especially in domestic and industrial uses, which account for about 70% of the total uses. One of the mechanisms for this is restructuring the subsidy system for the electricity sector and considering the prices set for consumption segments without prejudice to the lower segments that relate to limited-income categories. 

Expanding the use of energy-saving lamps. Continuing the policy of abolishing electricity subsidies on energy-intensive industries. Such as aluminum, iron and ceramic industries, which were applied as of January 1, 2012.

To expand the program of replacing natural gas with diesel in industrial uses to reduce the cost of industrial production and provide diesel for other more suitable uses. Feeding new industrial communities, urban agglomerations and reclaimed lands, and linking them to the unified electrical network, such as providing electrical nutrition for the East Owainat region.

Replacing and renewing existing stations to raise operating efficiency and improve their performance rate to make the best use of the design capacity.

Continuing to connect electricity to all slums, completing the lighting of residential communities, and strengthening the electricity networks in cities and villages.

Sources of electric energy production:

  The current expansions of electric power production in Egypt depend on several sources:

1- Thermal stations that use oil and natural gas.

2- Water stations for the production of electricity represented in the Aswan reservoir, the High Dam, the Esna barrage, the Nagaa Hammadi barrage and Assiut.

New and renewable energy:

Egypt has paid great attention to the use of new and renewable energy sources represented in solar energy, wind energy, biomass, and nuclear energy.

solar energy:

The number of hours of sunshine in the ideal areas for using solar energy in Egypt ranges between about 2,300 to 4,000 hours annually. Therefore, a solar power plant was established in the Karimat area, south of Cairo, at a cost of $125 million and with a capacity of 150 megawatts. Solar energy is currently used in solar heating of water for domestic or industrial purposes, as well as electricity generation from photovoltaic cells.

Wind Energy:

Egypt is characterized by relatively constant wind activity, and an average speed of up to (10 meters per second) in the Gulf of Suez region and the Red Sea coast between Ras Ghareb and Safaga, and in the East Owainat region. Wind plants have been established to generate electricity in Hurghada and Zaafarana, with a total installed capacity of 145 Megawatts provide fuel consumption of about 125 thousand tons of equivalent oil per year, which reflects positively on the economics of renewable energy projects.

Biomass energy:

Animal and plant wastes are available in large quantities in Egypt, and they are a good source of natural gaseous fuel, biogas, and some other gases such as ethanol and methanol.

The electricity sector has succeeded, for 8 consecutive years, in a comprehensive and bright development in various energy fields, as Egypt has shifted from the stage of securing the needs of citizens, to raising the level of comprehensive quality of electrical supply.

President El-Sisi was able to dazzle the world with the national projects for the electricity sector, through the success of the sector in raising the quality of services directed to citizens and ensuring sustainable development, and the state shifted from relying on traditional sources to relying on renewable sources that keep pace with the world in the 21st century, in addition to implementing the process of comprehensive development in transmission and distribution networks and control centers, which has contributed to improving the ability of the national network to absorb the expected increase in consumption, especially during the summer season.

The electricity and energy sector was able to achieve tremendous progress in providing electric recharge and eliminating power outages forever, by establishing new power generation plants and diversifying their production sources, which was reflected in Egypt's ability to overcome the great challenges it faced in providing energy to the local market during a previous stage, thanks to the unprecedented presidential support and continuous follow-up from the political leadership.
Transforming the electrical capacity deficit from 6,000 megawatts to a surplus of 13,000 megawatts


The electricity sector is considered one of the most important pillars of comprehensive development, as the sector succeeded in transforming the electrical capacity deficit from 6,000 megawatts in 2014 to a surplus of 13,000 megawatts in 2020, after adding about 28,000 megawatts of electrical capacity, equivalent to twice what was available. in 2014; This led to the availability of electricity for all uses to 100%, in addition to the advancement of Egypt by 44 places in the quality of electricity supply index of the Global Competitiveness Report in 2019.
Electricity production
During this year, the Ministry implemented many projects in the field of electricity production, including the field of thermal generation capacities, as the available electric generation capacities reached about 59,063 megawatts till December 17, 2020.
Overhead lines
The electricity sector in Egypt was able to achieve a tangible achievement in the field of constructing and extending overhead lines and underground cables, as the lengths of overhead lines and underground cables on high voltage reached about 50,000 km.
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Smart meters
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The project of replacing traditional meters with prepaid and smart meters has attracted the attention of the electricity sector in Egypt, as a pilot project was implemented to install 250 thousand meters within the scope of six distribution companies, and about 197 thousand smart meters were installed during the year 2021, and it is intended to change all meters in the network electricity with other smart or prepaid meters, in addition to establishing communication networks and data centers for them during the next ten years, as more than 9.9 million prepaid meters have been installed so far in electricity distribution companies.

The Ministry has implemented a unified reading program at the level of distribution companies to control electricity bills for traditional meters, and launched applications for charging prepaid meters through mobile phones.
One of the most important services launched by the Ministry of Electricity this year is the “Wasel” application, which provides services to people with disabilities through the use of sign language, through which inquiries and complaints are transferred to the responsible distribution companies, which in turn work to speed up the solution or respond to the inquiry.
The Electronic Platform for Electricity Services, July 2020
The electronic platform offers 17 various services, including the activation of the service of switching from accounting for electricity consumption through the practice system to code meters, and work is underway to activate the rest of the services during the coming period.
So far, the platform has received more than one million requests for a number of real estate units amounting to about 2.3 million units, including all 9 electricity distribution companies, while continuing to complete the executive procedures required to install the meters.
Since its launch, the platform has received 60,000 visitors per day through computers and mobile phones, in addition to a large number of inquiries that are answered directly, through the inquiries and complaints service on the electronic platform.
Implementation of 48 projects to produce electricity from traditional sources, at a value of $271 billion
The Ministry of Electricity and Energy was able to implement 48 projects to produce electricity from traditional sources at a cost of $271 billion, most notably 3 giant stations in the New Administrative Capital, Beni Suef and Burullus with a capacity of 14.4 thousand megawatts, in addition to the continued application of energy efficiency systems at all levels, and the automation of smart services and the installation of smart meters and the establishment of new control centers.
Achieving remarkable stability in electricity prices
The sector succeeded in achieving remarkable stability in electricity in Egypt and maintaining electricity prices at appropriate levels, as international statistics indicate that electricity prices in Egypt are still low compared to international levels, in addition to exporting surplus electricity production and concluding more electrical linkage deals with neighboring countries.
Developing electricity transmission and distribution networks
The state has developed a comprehensive plan to develop electricity transmission and distribution networks through 375 electricity transmission projects that have been and are being implemented with investments of approximately EGP 70.7 billion, and electricity distribution projects with an investment cost of EGP 41.8 billion.
During the year 2021, the largest national project was opened, which is the first automatic control center and is one of the first automated centers in the distribution network, as part of its endeavor to transform the current network into a digital network. The Ministry of Electricity is working to establish 47 control centers in 5 stages in the electricity distribution networks to cover the Republic.
The electricity sector in Egypt has made achievements at the level of electric power transmission and distribution networks. The capacity of transformer stations reached 164,000 MVA, and transformer stations with a capacity of 12,560 MVA were established and expanded.
Three new stations have been completed in New Ismailia - East Sohag - October 500. The Beni Suef industrial transformer station was expanded with a capacity of 6750 MVA.
The construction and expansion of (14) 66/220 kV transformer stations have been completed, with a total added capacity of 4280 MVA. As for the high-voltage transformer stations, the construction and expansion of (30) 11/66 kV transformer stations have been completed, with a total added capacity of about 1530 MVA (830 MVA and HV transformer stations, plus about 700 MVA on HV within UV).
Implementation of the largest and most important global stations
The Ministry of Electricity pays intense attention to electricity production projects from renewable sources, as the number of projects that have been and are being implemented has reached 17 projects at a cost of 51.8 billion pounds to add 5 thousand and 303 megawatts of renewable energy (wind / solar energy / hydro energy), and among the most important projects are electricity production stations from winds in Jabal Al-Zeit at a cost of 9.8 billion pounds, a complex for producing electricity from solar energy “Benban”, with total investments amounting to 35.2 billion pounds, and a hydroelectric power station in Assiut Barrages at a cost of 1.7 billion pounds.
Private sector participation in renewable energy projects
With regard to the participation of the private sector in renewable energy projects, the Ministry of Electricity was able to make it the most important step in the legislative amendments to remove investment obstacles in this field, and the electric tariff reform program was announced, as well as amending the law establishing the New and Renewable Energy Authority to allow it to establish companies on its own or in partnership with the private sector to build and operate renewable energy projects.
Electrical interconnection projects with neighboring countries
The electricity sector has taken advantage of Egypt's geographical location, advantages and competitive advantages, the daily reserve in the national electricity grid, increased production of renewable energy, as well as the establishment of a strong and integrated infrastructure over the past years, in participating in many electrical interconnection projects with Arab, African and European countries. 

The electricity sector, represented by the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company, was able to establish an electrical network extending between three continents, as that network linked Egypt and Sudan in the south, with Cyprus and Greece in the north, with Libya in the west, and Saudi Arabia and Jordan in the east, and it plans to reach Iraq during the coming period, and the following is the Egyptian electric linkage map that connects three continents:
Electrical connectivity with the continent of Asia
Egypt has linked electricity to the continent of Asia through interconnection with Jordan since 1999, and Egypt and Jordan recently agreed to raise the capacity of the electric interconnection line between the two countries from 500 megawatts currently to 1000 megawatts in the future.
Currently, a study is underway to provide Iraq with electricity through the Egyptian-Jordanian-Iraqi tripartite interconnection.
In October of last year, Egypt and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement for the electrical interconnection project between the two countries, at a total cost of $1.8 billion. This project represents a strong connection between the two largest electricity networks in the Arab region, with a total capacity of 150,000 MW. Egypt and Saudi Arabia electricity linkage line reached 3000 MW with HVDC technology, 500 kV.
The project consists of the construction of three high-voltage substations, East Medina Station, Tabuk Station in the Kingdom, and Badr Station, east of Cairo.
The length of the electrical linkage line between Egypt and Saudi Arabia is 1,372 km through cables between the two countries, with overhead transmission lines of 1,350 km, and sea lines of 22 km in the Gulf of Aqaba.
The establishment of the electrical interconnection line between Egypt and Saudi Arabia takes 52 months from the date of signing the contracts, and the first phase with a capacity of 1,500 megawatts will be operational in October 2024. The electrical interconnection project with Saudi Arabia, when operational, will achieve a number of common benefits for the two countries, including enhancing the reliability of the national electrical networks, supporting their stability, and benefiting from the generation capabilities available in it and the time differences at the peak of its electrical loads. The electrical interconnection line between Egypt and Saudi Arabia allows the possibility of selling energy to the Gulf countries in the future.
Egypt exports electricity to Palestine through a line whose capacity equals 30% of its energy needs, which is 30 megawatts.
Link with Europe
The electrical link between Egypt and Europe will be through the connection with Cyprus, and then from Cyprus to Greece, at a total cost estimated at the value of the agreement 2 billion euros.
The electrical connection is carried out by extending a submarine cable that runs from Egypt across the Mediterranean Sea to Cyprus and then to Greece. The length of the cable is about 1,650 kilometers (1,025 miles).
The capacity of the electrical interconnection project with Cyprus and Greece is 1,000 megawatts in the first phase, which will be doubled to 2,000 megawatts in the second phase, and may reach 3,000 megawatts.
A framework cooperation agreement was signed in mid-2019 regarding the electrical interconnection between Egypt, Cyprus and Greece via the island of Crete, to exchange electric energy on a high-voltage continuous current of 2,000 megawatts, 500 kilovolts.
Electrical interconnection with African countries
The electricity sector has begun to implement raising the capacity of the electrical interconnection line with Sudan from 80 megawatts to 300 megawatts, and this project is supposed to be completed in early October.
The electrical interconnection project between Egypt and Sudan is considered the real beginning of linking Egypt's electricity networks with African countries, especially the eleven Nile Basin countries.

The electricity sector is currently seeking to revive the electrical interconnection project between Egypt and the Congo (Aswan-Inga), which represents an essential step in supporting Egypt's role in becoming a pivotal center in the transmission of electric power to North Africa and Europe.
The studies, which Egypt participated in preparing, confirmed that the Inga River in the Congo is considered the most important source of clean energy for the production of electrical capacities sufficient for neighboring African countries, and part of it can be exported to Europe after connecting the Inga Dam to the High Dam through a giant electrical interconnection network that penetrates most African countries.
This project contributes to meeting part of Egypt's energy needs, in addition to the fact that this project is a starting point for the production of massive hydroelectric power sufficient to feed the Congo and the rest of the African countries and export the surplus to Europe.
The electricity sector, represented by the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company, seeks to raise the capacity of the existing 240 megawatt electrical interconnection line between Egypt and Libya to reach 500 megawatts or more, according to the needs of the Libyan side, to implement the Egyptian government's strategy to transform Egypt into a global energy hub, especially With a daily reserve in the national electricity grid exceeding 16,000 megawatts.
New projects
Discussions are currently taking place between the electricity sector, represented by the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company, and South Sudan, regarding the electrical interconnection project between the two countries. A number of projects are being prepared for electrical interconnection and the creation of a market for electricity trade with African countries, including the continental electrical interconnection project through a memorandum of understanding with the (NEPAD) agency. Which will be carried out in three phases, including electricity transmission and production projects.

Technical benefits of electrical connection:
It works to improve the reliability of electric power systems economically in countries with interconnected networks.

- Conducting better preventive maintenance programs, and reducing the ratios of the fixed and rotating reserves to face emergencies, by relying on the unified system reserve.
The electrical connection contributes to securing the supply in the event of breakdowns, interruptions and emergencies on the transport networks, and raising the degree of insurance without fear of any disturbances in the supply operations.
Increasing the dynamic stability of the electrical network and improving frequency and voltage regulation.
The direct availability of capital investments resulting from postponing the establishment of new production stations and achieving an economic return for the countries through which the electrical interconnection lines pass (transit countries).
Economic benefits of electrical connection:

Reducing the installed reserve capacity in the electrical network.

- Reducing the cost of producing electric energy, which will reflect positively on the prices of selling electric energy to consumers.

- Enhancing trade and energy exchange between them, and it will also be a support and incentive for the continuity of joint projects in other sectors.

Achieving a large financial return in hard currency, which will benefit the Egyptian economy and will contribute to lowering the prices of electricity segments.
As the Nuclear Power Plants Authority continues, currently and intensively, to complete the construction of the residential neighborhood for the Egyptian workers who will participate in the implementation and construction of the Dabaa nuclear plant project alongside the Russian workers, especially after its recent completion of the construction of a lattice wall surrounding the station only inside the site other than the concrete wall that will house the nuclear reactors and turbines related to the project, along with the rest of the necessary equipment.
The ministry is currently completing the construction and implementation of the global information center in the region, which will be the nucleus of scientific research there, in order to develop and follow up the technological development of the safe nuclear field in Dabaa and the neighboring areas.

The Ministry is establishing a special center for nuclear waste in Dabaa, where more than 250 national companies have helped in the construction of the Dabaa station and its rehabilitation to implement 20% of the construction of the first reactor for the production of electricity.
Coordination is currently underway between the Russian and Egyptian side during the current period to manufacture the reactor core trap, which is the first piece of long-term equipment for the Dabaa nuclear power plant, which represents a major milestone in the course of implementing the nuclear project, especially since an intensive group of technical meetings were held during the previous period between the two sides in the Nuclear Power Plants Authority for Electricity Generation, which resulted in agreement on the quality assurance program for the manufacturer, as well as technical documents and quality plans for the aforementioned equipment.

Green hydrogen projects
The state has begun to implement its first steps towards green hydrogen projects, the greatest interest currently in the Ministry of Electricity as it is considered a promising source of clean energy in the near future, and a ministerial committee is currently working at the national level to study hydrogen as an energy source in the near future in Egypt and a research of all possible alternatives to generate and use hydrogen, taking into account international experiences in this field.
The ministry plans to update the energy strategy in Egypt to include hydrogen as an energy source. The terms of reference for selecting the consulting office to assist in the preparation of the national strategy for hydrogen have been prepared.

A number of pilot projects are currently being studied with a number of international companies in the field of producing and exporting green hydrogen with capacities ranging between 100-200 megawatts.

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