08 June 2023 02:27 PM

Bilateral Relations

Egypt and Russia

Sunday، 10 December 2017 - 12:00 AM

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Russia dates back to 1943, when Egypt's Embassy in Moscow and Soviet Embassy in Cairo and its consulate in Alexandria have been established.

In August 1948, the first economic agreement between the two countries was signed on the exchange of Egyptian cotton with grain and timber from the Soviet Union. In the wake of the 1952 Revolution, the Soviet Union documented its relations with Egypt on economic, military and commercial levels.

Bilateral relations reached their peak in the 1950s and 1960s, when late President Gamal Abdel Nasser took power. Thousands of Soviet experts helped establish productive institutions in Egypt, including the Aswan High Dam, the Iron and Steel Factory in Helwan, the Aluminum Complex in Nagaa Hammadi, Aswan - Alexandria Electricity Lines and 97 industrial projects were completed with the contribution of the Soviet Union. Since 1950s, Egyptian Armed Forces have been supplied with Soviet weapons.

Relations between the two countries took different course when late President Anwar al-Sadat took power as the relations witnessed  some kind of tension, however it quickly began to improve gradually under the rule of former President Hosni Mubarak.

Egypt was one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation after the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991. It was followed by political relations at the level of the heads of state, government and parliamentary levels. This was reflected in the first official visit of former President Mubarak to the Russian Federation in September 1997. During this visit, Russian cooperation agreement and seven agreements were signed. This was followed by two presidential visits to Russia in 2001 and 2006.

Political Relations

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) were established on August 26, 1943. The first step taken towards cementing cooperation between the two countries was the signing, in August 1948, of an economic agreement to barter Egyptian cotton for cereals and lumber from the USSR. Other steps followed; i.e. the modernization of the Egyptian Armed Forces, the building of the High Dam and the establishment of numerous industrial plants (e.g. Naga'a Hamadi Aluminium Plant; and extending electricity lines from Aswan to Alexandria). There are 97 industrial projects were completed with the contribution of the USSR.


In 1991, Egypt was the first country that established the diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation after the collapse of the former USSR, where the political relations between the two countries developed at the governmental and parliamentary levels.


Russia has expressed its support to the June 30 Revolution and its subsequent developments in all the road map. So, Russia supported Egypt's strong return to the regional and international arena, its participation in all regional initiatives and resisted any attempts to marginalize the Egyptian role. Especially in the Syrian crisis and Gaza crisis, which came to demand the inclusion of Egypt to the International Quartet to activate the role of Egypt.


After the Revolution of 30 June, the political relations between the two countries have seen a boom represented in the visit of the Russian foreign and defense Ministers to Egypt on 14 November, 2013, and the visit of the Egyptian foreign and defense Ministers to Russia on 12-13 February, 2014.


The political talks between the two countries were held in the form of «2+2», making Egypt the only Arab country to adopt this formula with Moscow, where Russia adopted this formula with other five countries, namely the United States of America, France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Japan.


President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi's visit to Russia and President Putin's visit to Egypt reinforced the strategic relationship between the two countries, which reflected the keenness of the two countries to exchange the political support at the regional and international levels, in light of the external and internal challenges faced.


These challenges undermine the political stability and threaten the national security of both countries. The two countries have a unified vision in facing terrorism and achieving a common interest in supporting economic growth  and complementary economic opportunities in the two countries.

Mutual Visits

On 28/9/2018: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met with his Russia counterpart Sergey Lavrov on ways of boosting the bilateral relations, as well as regional and international issues of common concern. The two ministers discussed ways to strengthen the economic cooperation between the two countries. Shoukry stressed Egypt's interest in increasing direct Russian investments in the country, especially in the industrial domain. The two ministers expressed satisfaction with the progress made in the Dabaa nuclear plant project.


On 19/8/2018: Defense Minister Mohamed Zaki visited Russia, which was received by Russian Defense Minister and discussed the military cooperation between the two countries.


On 14/5/2018: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Russia and held with his Russian counterpart Sergey Lavrov consultations in the 2+2 format which group the defense and foreign affairs ministers of both countries. The consultations reflect the strategic importance of the Egyptian-Russian relations on the backdrop of the interests achieved for both countries and peoples. He further reviewed with his Russian counterpart the good performance of the Egyptian economy during the recent phase as trade exchange between Cairo and Moscow reached $6.712 billion last year. Russian investments in Egypt hit $66.49 million till the end of January.


On 11/12/2017: Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Egypt, which was received by President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. Both sides discussed ways of boosting bilateral relations in various domains, particularly the political, trade, economic and energy fields as well as number of regional issues of common interest.


On 17/10/2017: Speaker of the House of Representatives Ali Abdel-Aal paid a visit to Russia to participate in the 137th session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, held in St. Petersburg, Russia. During the meeting, Abdel-Aal presented Egypt's vision on the regional and international developments.


On 21/8/2017: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukri started a session of talks with his Russian counterpart Sergey Lavrov in Moscow on boosting bilateral relations and coordination on a host of regional and international issues, topped by countering terrorism.


On 29/5/2017: Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu and Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov visited Cairo and held talks with President Abdel Fattah El Sisi to discuss cooperation between the two countries and a number of regional issues, topped by the crises in Libya and Syria.


On 6/5/2017: Pope Twadros II, the Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of St. Mark, visited Russia. He was received by Russian President Vladimir Putin in the presence of Patriarch Kyrill, Patriarch of the Russian Church.


On 4/3/2017: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Chairperson of the Russian Federation Council Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko and her accompanying delegation. Talks discussed cooperation between Egypt and Russia in the various fields in the coming phase. The two sides reviewed current developments in view of the efforts exerted to work out political settlement to regional crises.


On 1/3/2017: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin. Sisi asserted the strength of Egyptian-Russian ties. Sisi said that Egypt is looking forward to boosting cooperation between Egypt and Russia in the field of manufacturing civil and military products. Sisi pointed out the importance of strengthening partnership with Russia in the different economic and industrial fields.


On 29/11/2017: A Russian security delegation visited Egypt and met Minister of Civil Aviation Sharif Fathi. The delegation commended the security equipment and procedures in Cairo International Airport Terminal 2.


On 2/11/2016: A delegation from the Federal Veterinary and Phytosanitary Authority visited Russia to discuss the export of Egyptian products to Moscow.


On 7/11/2016: Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Issam Fayed visited Russia to attend the 18th session of the International Gold and Olive Exhibition.


On 4/9/2016: Defense Minister Sedqi Sobhi visited Moscow. The minister held a series of talks with senior Russian officials in light of the Egyptian-Russian strategic cooperation. He also attended the third meeting of the joint Egyptian-Russian Military Committee that will probe a number of issues in view of the partnership and military cooperation between the two countries' armed forces.


On 28/7/2016: Minister of Civil Aviation Sherif Fathi, Attorney General Counselor Nabil Sadiq and Chairman of the Russian Aircraft Accident Investigation Commission Ayman El-Mokhtam visited Moscow. The delegation presented to the Russian authorities the latest developments in the investigation of the Russian plane crash that took place after taking off from Sharm el-Sheikh Airport.


On 15/3/2016: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry held talks with his Russian counterpart Sergey Lavrov. The talks reflected distinguished relations between both countries. The talks tackled all aspects of bilateral ties along with the latest developments in the Middle East region, mainly the situation in Syria, Libya, Yemen and the Palestinian cause.


On 28/1/2016: Russian Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Alexander Botabov visited Egypt and met Minister of Defense and Military Production Sedkai Sobhi. During the meeting, the two sides reviewed a number of issues of mutual interest, as well as a number of agreements to strengthen partnership and cooperation between the two countries.


On 26/1/2016: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met Speaker of the Russian State Duma Sergei Naryshkin. During the meeting, Sisi has stressed Egypt's keenness on boosting cooperation with Russia in all fields. Sisi hailed as "historical" and "strong" relations with Moscow. Naryshkin conveyed Russian President Vladimir Putin's best regards to Sisi. He told Sisi that Russia appreciates the role played by Egypt to achieve security and stability in the region. Naryshkin congratulated Sisi on completing the parliamentary elections and the start of the parliamentary sessions. Sisi, for his part, stressed the importance of enhancing parliamentary ties between the two countries.


On 26/11/2015: Russian Minister of State for Military Production Alexander Botabov visited Egypt and met Minister of State for Military Production Dr. Mohammed Al-Assar.


On 25/11/2015: Russian Defense Minister Sergey Kozugitovic Shugu and his delegation visited Egypt and met Minister of Defense and Military Production Sedkai Sobhi. The two sides signed the minutes of the second meeting of the Joint Military Commission and a number of protocols of cooperation between the armed forces of both countries in many fields.


On 24/11/2015: Russian Defense Minister Sergey Kozugitovic Shugu was received by President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. The meeting discussed ways to strengthen bilateral cooperation between the two countries, as well as coordinate the positions of Egypt and Russia on regional and international issues of common concern.


On 19/11/2015: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met Sergey Kiriyenko, the head of Russia's state-owned nuclear firm Rosatom. After the meeting, Sisi witnessed inking three agreements between Russia and Egypt, including an agreement in the field of construction and operation of nuclear power plants to produce electricity.


On 6/9/2015: Assistant Foreign Minister Hisham Badr visited Russia at the head of an Egyptian delegation to participate in the political consultations between Egypt and Russia. Badr stressed that the political consultations with the Russian side dealt with many issues related to disarmament, non-proliferation, Egypt's candidacy for membership of the Security Council for the period 2016-2017, expansion of the Security Council and issues on the agenda of the 70th session of the UN General Assembly.


On 25/8/2015, President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi arrived in Moscow, kicking off a three-day official visit to Russia. He held talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, the fifth summit meeting between them, within the special relationship binding the two countries.


On 26/5/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov. The meeting dealt with the establishment of a free trade zone between Egypt and the Eurasian Customs Union, which comprises Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Armenia.


On 25/5/2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry and his Russian Counterpart Sergi Lavrov underlined the importance of intensifying efforts to combat terrorism, foster national dialogue and respect sovereignty of regional States.


On 8/5/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi is taking part in Moscow's celebrations marking the 70th anniversary of the victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.


On 21/3/2015, Industry Minister Mounir Fakhry Abdel Nour has shaken up the Egyptian side of the Egyptian-Russian Business Council to put more focus on increasing the volume of bilateral trade.


On 3/3/2015, Defense Minister Sedqi Sobhi met his Russian counterpart Sergey Shoigu at the headquarters of the Russian Defense Ministry. The two ministers probed boosting bilateral military and security cooperation.


On 2/3/2015, President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi hailed the stance of the Russian Federation and President Vladimir Putin in support to Egypt. The President described Egyptian-Russian relations as strong, stable and historical.


This came during his meeting with Nikolai Patrushev, the Secretary of the Russian National Security Council.


On 26/2/2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Russia and met with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and discussed means of boosting relations between Egypt and Russia. Lavrov asserted his country's support for an Arab draft resolution referred to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on Libya.


On 9/2/2015, President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi received Russian President Vladimir Putin who arrived in Cairo on a two-day visit, leading a high-level delegation to Egypt. They discussed political and economic relations between the two countries, and also Middle East problems including the Palestinian–Israeli conflict. They witnessed signing of a number of memos of understanding to establish a nuclear zone in Dabaa area to generate power and other investment zones. Economic cooperation increased by 80 percent due to the increase of Egyptian agricultural products and the increase of Russian oil products to Egypt. President Putin said the number of Russian tourists visiting Egypt 2014 hit 3 million with a 50 % increase due to the stability in Egypt.


In December 2014, President Abdul-Fattah Al-Sisi received Deputy Russian Prime Minister Arkady Vladimirovich Dvorkovich. During the talks, the President Sisi stressed the importance of maintaining cooperation between Egypt and the Russian Federation in all fields.


The President was referring to the significance of the element of time for Egypt in advancing towards of development with the aim of fulfilling the aspirations of the Egyptian people.


Attending the meeting were Minister of Trade and Industry Mounir Fakhri Abdel-Nour, the Deputy Russian Ministers of Agriculture and Energy and the Russian Ambassador in Cairo.


In August 2014, President Abdul-Fattah al Sisi visited Moscow for talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Discussions focused on Middle East developments in Gaza, Libya, Iraq and Syria. The two sides agreed on the need for greater global cooperation in the fight against terrorism. Talks also dealt with political and economic developments in Egypt.


In May 2014, a Russian people's delegation visited Egypt to mark the 50th anniversary of diverting the river Nile in Egypt during the Construction of the High Dam in 1964. Attending were a Russian engineers who were actually involved in the construction of the Dam.


In February 2014, Minister of Defense Colonel-General Abdul Fattah El Sisi and Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmy paid a two-day visit to Moscow.


Russian President Vladimir Putin and Colonel-General Abdul Fattah El Sisi, met in Moscow, to review bilateral ties, especially in the area of fostering military ties, in addition to the current developments in Egypt. Putin expressed hope that new mechanisms for cooperation between the two countries would be established. The Russian President expressed Moscow's aspiration for a wider scope of cooperation with Egypt after Presidential elections adding that he fully backs Egypt's new constitution. Al-Sisi, meanwhile said his visit offers a new start to the development of military and technological cooperation between the two countries. Earlier al-Sisi held talks with his Russian counterpart Sergei Shoygu, reviewing military cooperation between the two countries as well as security challenges in the Middle East and their effect on Egyptian security. For his part, Shoygu said the two sides touched on the possibility of Russia and Egypt conducting joint military exercises and the option of Egypt's officers undergoing military training in Moscow.


In November 2013, former President Adly Mansour received visiting Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, Defene Minister Sergey Shoygu as well as special envoy of Russian President Vladimir Putin for the Middle East Mikhail Bogdanov and their accompanying delegation, with Russian Ambassador to Egypt Sergei Kerbachenko attending. During the meeting, Lavrov and Shoygu conveyed Putin's greetings to Mansour, hoping that Egypt would achieve stability and asserting Russian support for Egypt in the coming period, Presidential Spokesman Ihab Badawi said. Mansour expressed his appreciation and keenness on relations binding Egypt and Russia, asserting the importance of boosting bilateral relations in all fields. Egypt is keen to be open to all international actors as well as establishing balanced relations based on its national interests, he added. The situation in Syria and efforts to convene the Geneva 2 conference in search of a political solution to the war-torn country and Middle East peace were also discussed.


In November 2013, former President Adly Mansour received a call from Russian President Vladimir Putin in which he expressed his country's full support of Egypt, and the interim administration which took over on the heels of 30 June Revolution.


In September 2013, Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmi arrived in Moscow for talks with his Russian counterpart Sergei Lavrov in Moscow covering bilateral relations and regional and international issues of mutual interest, mainly the Palestinian and Syrian files. The Foreign Minister was also received by the Secretary of Russian National Security Nikolai Patrushev.


In March 2010, Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Viktor Khristenko visited Egypt, where he co-chaired the 8th session of the Egyptian-Russian joint Committee alongside his Egyptian counterpart.


On 23/6/2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited Egypt took place. During the course of the visit the Treaty on strategic partnership between Egypt and Russia was signed, which defined the main lines of bilateral cooperation.


In March 2008, former President Hosni Mubarak, arrived in Moscow on an official visit, in the course of which he met with President Dmitry Medvedev. The two Heads of state attended the signing ceremony of the Agreement on cooperation in the field of using atomic energy.


In April 2007, the Protocol of Understanding on establishing the specialized industrial zone with the participation of the Russia, in the city of Burg El-Arab (near Alexandria) was signed within the framework of the visit to Egypt of Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Viktor Khristenko.


On 1/11/2006, Former Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt, was in Moscow with an official visit. The Egyptian delegation accompanying him also included Minister of Information Anis Fekki, Minister of Trade and Industry Rashid Muhammad Rashid, Minister of Investments Mahmoud Mohieddin, as well as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ahmed Aboul-Gheit, who was received by Sergey Lavrov.


On 26/4/2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin paid a working visit to Egypt, the first visit on such a level for the last 40 years. He met with former President Hosni Mubarak. As a result of negotiations the Joint statement on deepening the friendly relations between the Russian Federation and the Arab Republic of Egypt was adopted.


In April 2001, Former President Hosni Mubarak paid another official visit to Moscow, during which the Long-Term Programme of developing trade, economic, industrial, science and technical cooperation as well as the declaration of principle of friendly relationship and cooperation were signed.


In September 1997, Former President Hosni Mubarak embarked on his first official visit Russia. A joint communiqué was released; 7 agreements signed.


In 1991, after the disintegration of the USSR, Egypt was quick to establish diplomatic ties with the Russian Federation.

Economic Relations

The High Dam is the culmination of the Egyptian-Russian cooperation as it is a giant witness to the depth of relations between the two countries.


Trade relations between the two countries went sour during 1990s, but in the wake of that period, economic relations were steadily increasing, especially in recent years.


The economic relations between Egypt and Russia have witnessed a remarkable development since President Sisi visited Russia in 2015.


The volume of trade exchange between Egypt and Russia during the first seven months of 2017 amounted to about 2 billion and 526.8 million dollars compared to 2 billion and 221.4 million dollars during the same period of 2016.


Egyptian exports during the first 7 months of 2017 amounted to $ 387.9 million compared to $ 304.6 million during the same period of 2016 by an increase of 27.3%.


Egypt's exports of fresh and frozen strawberries increased by 74 percent, electrical machinery by 76 percent, textile products by 44 percent, and exports of potatoes, onions and garlic by 117 percent and 145 percent respectively.


Russian investments in the Egyptian market amounted to 62.8 million dollars in 417 projects operating in the fields of tourism and service sectors, construction and communications.


A total of 416 Russian companies were established in Egypt with a capital of over $ 60 million. The most important of these companies are: “Tiz Tour” for tourism with a volume of investments amounted to 9.9 million dollars and “Red Sea Pearl” for tourism investment with a volume of investments amounted to 2.4 million dollars.


El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant


In 2007, former President Hosni Mubarak announced the resumption of Egypt's nuclear program in the area of Dabaa.


On November 19, 2015, Egypt and Russia signed an initial agreement, under which Russia will build and finance Egypt’s first nuclear power plant.


Two agreements and a memorandum of understanding were signed between the two sides, the first agreement to cooperate in the establishment and operation of the nuclear power plant in Egypt, was signed by Sergy Krenka Chairman of “Ross Atom” for nuclear power plants from the Russian side, and Mohamed Shaker Almraqbi Minister of Electricity and Renewable Energy, from Egypt side, that in the presence of a number of officials of the Egyptian Nuclear Energy Authority, officials of the Russian company and Russia's Ambassador in Cairo.


The second agreement was between the governments of Egypt and Russia under which Russia offers Egypt government a loan to establish a nuclear power plant in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The agreement was signed by Finance Minister Hany Kadry Demian from the Egyptian side and Russian Deputy Finance Minister Sergei Anatoly for the Russian side.


The signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between Nuclear and Radiological Supervisory Board from the Egyptian side and the Federal Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision of Russia system from the Russia side, to cooperate in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.


The MOU was signed by Vice President of Nuclear and Radiological Control Authority in Egypt, Walid Ibrahim Zidan from the Egyptian side and the Vice president of the Federal Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision of Russia system.


Signed Agreements


Among the most prominent agreements signed between Egypt and Russia:


1- On 2/2/2016, Prime Minister Sherif Ismail witnessed the signing ceremony of three cooperation agreements between the Egyptian and Russian ministries of industry, tourism and aviation.


A- The first tackled the establishment of a Russian industrial zone in Egypt.


B- The second is a memorandum of understanding for investment cooperation involving the National Bank of Egypt, Bank Misr and the Russian Direct Investment Fund.


C- The third is on cooperation between two companies from both countries.


2- On 10/2/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi and visiting Russian President Vladimir Putin witnessed the inking of a number of investment cooperation agreements between the two countries. The two leaders also witnessed the signing of a deal to establish a nuclear-operated power plant.

Cultural Relations

Egyptian-Russian relations have been strong and deep-rooted from the 19th century onwards. The 1830s one of the pioneers of Arab and Islamic literature/culture Mohammad al-Tantawi travelled to Russia, where he stayed for the rest of his and was captivated by Russian literature. In the same period, Egypt's then ruler Mohammad Ali, The Great chose four engineers to travel to Siberia to study mining.


There are several institutions which help foster cultural ties between the two countries. The Egyptian Cultural Bureau (ECB) in Russia is one such. Examples of the events organized ECB are:


• The unveiling in Saint Petersburg of a bronze statue of Sheikh Mohammad al-Tantawi carved by Dr. Osama al-Serwi – 20 December, 2013


• The unveiling of a statue in Tver (a city located 300 km noorth of Moscow) of the Doyen of Arab Literature Dr. Taha Hussein – 18 October, 2013


• Events of the Egyptian Cultural Festival, marking the 70th Anniversary of diplomatic relations between Egypt and Russia Egyptian feature and documentary films were shown; three books discussed; and an art exhibition (photographs and carved pieces) held – 11 to 14 October 2013


• An Exhibition of Contemporary Egyptian; 25 Egyptian artists participated – Jun 3, 2013.


Religious Institutions Cooperation


There is a great cooperation between Awqaf Ministry and a number of important religious institutions in Russia, including Russia Muftis Council and the Central Administration of Russian Muslims, where there are a number of ministry envoys to teach in the religious institutes in Russia. The Ministry of Awqaf also sends one or more envoys to Russia to commemorate the holy month of Ramadan. The Egyptian and Russian sides are also keen to participate in the Quran competitions organized by both parties.


During the period from 28 October to 4 November, 2014, Pope Tawadros II visited the Russian Church. The visit was very successful in light of its role in promoting the relations between the Coptic and Eastern Orthodox Churches and received also great welcome at both Russian official and popular levels.


During the visit, the Russian Foreign Minister stressed the historical relations between the two churches and expressed his appreciation for the role of the Pope and the Church in preserving Egypt and the Middle East. The Egyptian and Russian visions agreed on the necessity of preserving the Christians of the East.


Media Relations


On February 4, 2015, the Russian government announced the opening of a new office of the "Sputnik" Russian-language news agency, based in Cairo, in conjunction with Russian President Vladimir Putin's visit to Egypt on February 9, 2015.

Tourism Relations

Egyptian tourism was badly affected by the fall of a Russian plane when terrorists blew up a Russian plane in northern Sinai in October 2015, killing 224 people on board.


The Egyptian Ministry of Tourism is now restoring the high level of the security system in the tourism sector in the cities of Sharm el-Sheikh and Hurghada since Russia banned the travel of its citizens to Egypt.


Data from the Ministry of Tourism confirmed that tourism revenues in Egypt amounted to only $ 500 million in the first quarter of 2016, with a decrease of 66% compared to last year.


The reason for the decline in tourism revenues for almost half is the withdrawal of Russia from the tourism market, which accounts for more than 40% of the volume of incoming tourism to Egypt.


Military Cooperation

Cairo has linked historical military relations with Moscow since the late President Gamal Abdel Nasser. The former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) had an important role to play in the re-building of the Egyptian Armed Forces in the aftermath of the 1967 setback. The Soviet military supplies helped through the War of Attrition and in achieving victory in 1973.

Military cooperation between the two countries continued non-stop over the past 30 years, particularly as 30% of Egypt's military equipment is Russian-made and still in-use.

Following the June 2013 Revolution, relations took a turn for the better; which indicates that Egyptian decision-makers have their country's interests at heart. Turning to Russia does not mean that Egypt a subordinate. Former Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmi explained that Egypt was not replacing the US with Russia but was extending bridges of cooperation with all countries.


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