THE CONSTITUTION OF THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT
After the Amendments Ratified
on May 22, 1980 Referendum
The Head of the State...
Taking into account the results of the referendum on the amendment of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt conducted on May 22, l 980;
The public consensus to amend the Constitution;
And cognizant of article 189 of the Constitution;
Hereby issues the amendment of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt according to what has been agreed upon at the referendum, to be put into effect as of the date the results of the referendum were announced.
Mohamed Anwar El Sadat
(Cairo-Ragab 7, 1400 Hijra-May 22, 1980 A.C.)
We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this great land since the dawn of history and the beginning of civilisation:
We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this great land since the dawn of history and the beginning of civilisation:
We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this great land since the dawn of history and the beginning of civilisation:
We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this great land since the dawn of history and the beginning of civilisation:
We, the people working in Egypt’s villages, cities, plants, centres of education, industry and in any field of work which contributes to create life on its soil or which plays a part in the hounour of defending this land; We, the people who believe in our immortal and spiritual heritage, and who are confident in our profound faith, and cherish the honour of man and of humanity; We, the people, who in addition to shouldering the trust of history, carry the responsibility of great present and future objectives whose seeds are embedded in the long and arduous struggle, and which hosted the flags of freedom, socialism and unity along the path of the great march of the Arab nation; We, the Egyptian people, in the name of God and by His assistance, pledge indefinitely and unconditionally to exert every effort to realise:
Peace to our world :
being determined that peace should be based on justice, and that the political and social progress of all peoples can only be realised through the freedom of these peoples and their independent will, and that any civilisation is not worthy of its name unless it is free form exploitation whatever its form.
the hope of our Arab Nation, being convinced that Arab Unity is a call of history and of the future, and a demand of destiny; and that it cannot materialise except through an Arab Nation, capable of warding off any threat, whatever the source or the pretexts for such a threat.
The constant development of life in our nation :
Being convinced that the true challenge confronting nations is the realization of progress and that such progress does not occur automatically, or through slogans; but that the driving force behind it is the release of the potentials of creativity and inspiration in our people, who have asserted at all times their contribution to civilization and to humanity through work alone.
Our people have passed through successive experiences, meantime offering rich experiences on the national and international level and being guided by them, which ultimately took shape in the July 23 Revolution of 1952.
This Revolution was brought about by the alliance of the working forces of our militant people who were able, through profound and refined consciousness, to retina their original character, but at the same time move forward in a bid to realist full integration between science and faith, between political and social freedom, between national independence and social affiliation; and to participate in the worldwide struggle for the liberation of man, on the political, economic, cultural and ideological levels, and in the struggle against the forces of regression, domination an exploitation.
Freedom for the humanity of the Egyptian man:
Realising that man’s humanity and dignity are the lights which guide and direct the course of the great development of mankind for the realisation of its supreme ideal.
Man’s dignity is a natural reflection of the nation’s dignity, now that the individual is the cornerstone in the edifice of the homeland, the land that derives its strength and prestige from the value of man and his education.
The sovereignty of law is not only a guarantee for the freedom of the individual alone, but is also at the same time the sole basis for the legality of authority.
The alliance of the active popular powers is not a means for social strife leading towards historical development.
In this modern age, it is a safety valve, protecting the unity of working powers in the country and eliminating, through democracy, and contradictions.
We, the people of Egypt, out of determination, confidence and faith in all national and international responsibilities, and in acknowledgment of God’s right and His Heavenly Messages, and in the right of the country and nation, as well as of the principle and responsibility of mankind, and in the name of the Almighty and His assistance, declare on the 11 Th. of September, 1971 that we accept, and grant, to ourselves this Constitution, affirming our determination to defend and protect it, and asserting our respect for it in letter and spirit.
Constitution Of The Arab Republic of Egypt
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic, socialist State based on the alliance of the working forces of the people.
The Egyptian people are part of the Arab Nation and work for the realisation of its comprehensive unity.
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic its official language.
Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation.
Sovereignty is for the people alone they are the source of authority.
The people shall exercise and protect this sovereignty, and safeguard national unity in the manner specified in the Constitution.
The economic foundation of the Arab Republic of Egypt is a socialist democratic system based on sufficiency and justice in a manner preventing exploitation, conducive to liquidation of income differences, protecting legitimate earnings, and guaranteeing the equity of the distribution of public duties and responsibilities.
The political system of the Arab Republic of Egypt is a multiparty one, within the framework of the basic elements and principles of the Egyptian society as stipulated in the Constitution (Political parties are regulated by law).
The Egyptian nationality is defined by the law.
BASIC CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOCIETY
Social and Moral Constituents:
Social and Moral Constituents:
Social and Moral Constituents:
Social solidarity is the basis of the society.
The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all citizens.
The family is the basis of the society founded on religion, morality and patriotism.
The State is keen to preserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family-with what it embodies of values and traditions-while affirming and developing this character in the relations within the Egyptian society.
The State shall guarantee the protection of motherhood and childhood, take care of children and youth and provide the suitable conditions for the development of their talents.
The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence.
The society shall be committed to safeguarding and protecting morals, promoting the genuine Egyptian traditions and abiding by the high standards of religious education, moral and national values, historical heritage of the people, scientific facts, socialist conduct and public morality within the limits of the law.
The State is committed to abiding by these principles and promoting them.
Work is right, a duty and an honour ensured by the State.
Workers who excel in their field of work shall receive the appreciation of the State and the society.
No work shall be imposed on the citizens, except by virtue of the law, for the performance of a public service and in return for a fair remuneration.
Public offices are the right of all citizens and an assignment for their occupants in the service of the people.
The State guarantees their (the occupants) protection and the performance of their duties in safeguarding the interests of the people.
They may not be dismissed by other than the disciplinary way, except in the cases specified by the law.
The war veterans, those injured in war or because of it, and the wives and children of those killed shall have priority in work opportunities according to the law.
The State shall guarantee cultural, social and health services, and work to ensure them for the villages in particular in an easy and regular manner in order to raise their standard.
The State- shall guarantee social and health insurance services and all the citizens have the right to pensions in cases of incapacity, unemployment and old-age, in accordance with the law.
Education is a right guaranteed by the State.
It is obligatory in the primary stage and the State shall work to extend obligation to other stages.
The State shall supervise all branches of education and guarantee the independence of universities and scientific research centres, with a view to linking all this with the requirements of society and production.
Religious education shall be a principal subject in the courses of general education.
Education in the State educational institutions shall be free of charge in its various stages.
Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for which all the people’s energies should be mobilized.
The institution of civil titles shall be prohibited.
The national economy shall be organised in accordance with a comprehensive development plan which ensures raising the national income, fair distribution, raising the standard of living, eliminating unemployment, increasing work opportunities, connecting wages with production, fixing a minimum and a maximum limit for wages in a manner which guarantees lessening the disparities between incomes.
The people shall control all the means of production and direct their surplus in accordance with the development plan laid down by the State.
Every citizen shall have a share in the national revenue to be defined by the law in accordance with his work or his unexploiting ownership.
The workers shall have a share in the management and profits of the projects. They are committed to the development of production and the implementation of the plan in their production units, in accordance with the law. protecting the means of production is a national duty.
Workers shall be represented on the boards of directors of the public sector units by at least 50% of the number of members of these boards. The law shall guarantee for the small farmers and small craftsmen 80% of the membership on the boards of directors of the agricultural CO-operatives and industrial cooperatives.
Beneficiaries shall participate in the management of the services projects of public interest and their supervision in accordance with the law.
The State shall look after the CO-operative establishments in all their forms and encourage handicrafts with a view to developing production and raising income.
The State shall endeavour to consolidate the agricultural cooperatives according to modern scientific bases.
Ownership shall be under the supervision of the people and the protection of the State.
There are three kinds:
public ownership, cooperative ownership and private ownership.
Public ownership is the ownership of the people and it is confirmed by the continuous consolidation of the public sector.
The Public sector shall be the vanguard of progress in all spheres and shall assume the main responsibility in the development plan.
Co-operative ownership is the ownership of the co-operative societies. The law guarantees its protection and self-management.
Private ownership shall be represented by the unexploiting capital. The law organises the performance of its social function in the service of national economy within the framework of the development plan without deviation or exploitation. it may not be in conflict, in the ways of its use, with the general welfare of the people.
Public ownership shall have its sanctity, and its protection and consolidation is the duty of every citizen in accordance with the law, as it is considered the mainstay of the strength of the homeland, a basis for the socialist system and a source of prosperity of the people.
Private ownership shall be safeguarded and may not be put under sequestration except in the cases specified in the law and with a judicial decision. It may not be expropriated except for the general good and against a fair compensation in accordance with the law. The right of inheritance is guaranteed in it.
Nationalisation shall not be allowed except for considerations of public interest, in accordance with a law and against a compensation.
General sequestration of funds shall be prohibited.
Private sequestration shall not be allowed except with a judicial decision.
The law shall fix the maximum limit of land ownership with a view to protecting the farmer and the agricultural labourer from exploitation and asserting the authority of the alliance of the people’s working powers at the level of the village.
The tax system shall be based on social justice.
Saving is a national duty protected, encouraged and organised by the State.
PUBLIC FREEDOMS, RIGHTS AND DUTIES
All citizens are equal before the law.
They have equal public rights and duties without discrimination between them due to race, ethnic origin, language, religion or creed.
Individual freedom is a natural right and shall not be touched.
Except in cases of a flagrant delicate no person may be arrested, inspected, detained or his freedom restricted or prevented from free movement except by an or necessitated by investigations and preservation of the security of the society.
This order shall be given by the competent judge or the Public Prosecution in accordance with the provisions of the law.
The law shall determine the period of custody.
Any person arrested, detained or his freedom restricted shall be treated in the manner concomitant with the preservation of his dignity.
No physical or moral harm is to be inflicted upon him.
He may not be detained or imprisoned except in places defined by laws organising prisons.
If a confession is proved to have been made by a person under any of the aforementioned forms of duress or coercion, it shall be considered invalid and futile.
Any medical or scientific experiment may not be undergone on any person without his free consent.
Homes shall have their sanctity and they may not be entered or inspected except by a causal judicial warrant prescribed by the law.
The law shall protect the inviolability of the private life of citizens.
Correspondence, wires, telephone calls an other means of communication shall have their own sanctity and secrecy and may not be confiscated or monitored except by a causal judicial warrant and for a definite period according to the provisions of the law.
The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and the freedom of practice of religious rites.
Freedom of opinion is guaranteed.
Every individual has the right to express his opinion and to publicise it verbally or in writing or by photography or by other means within the limits of the law.
Self-criticism and constructive criticism is the guarantee for the safety of the national structure.
Freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass media shall be guaranteed.
Censorship on newspapers is forbidden as well as notifying, suspending or cancelling them by administrative methods.
In a state of emergency or in time of war a limited censorship may be imposed on the newspapers, publications and mass media in matters related to public safety or purposes of national security in accordance with the law.
The State shall guarantee the freedom of scientific research and literary, artistic and cultural invention and provide the necessary means for its realisation.
No citizen may be prohibited from residing in any place and no citizen may be forced to reside in a particular place, except in the cases defined by the law.
No citizen may be deported from the country or prevented from returning to it.
Citizens shall have the right to permanent or temporary immigration.
The law shall regulate this right and the measures and conditions of immigration and leaving the country.
The right to political asylum shall be guaranteed by the State for every foreigner persecuted for defending the peoples’ interests, human rights, peace or justice.
The extradition of political refugees is prohibited.
Citizens shall have the right to peaceable and unarmed private assembly, without the need for prior notice.
Security men should not attend these private meetings.
Public meetings, processions and gatherings are allowed within the limits of the law.
Citizens shall have the right to form societies as defined in the law.
The establishment of societies whose activities are hostile to the social system, clandestine or have a military character is prohibited.
The creation of syndicates and unions on a democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law, and should have a moral entity.
The law regulates the participation of syndicates and unions in carrying out the social programmes and plans, raising the standard of efficiency, consolidating the socialist behavior among their members, and safeguarding their funds.
They are responsible for questioning their members about their behavior in exercising their activities according to certain codes of morals, and for defending the rights and liberties of their members as defined in the law.
Any assault on individual freedom or on the inviolability of private life of citizens and any other public rights and liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and the law shall be considered a crime, whose criminal and civil lawsuit is not liable to prescription.
The State shall grant a fair compensation to the victim of such an assault.
The defense of the motherland is a sacred duty, and conscription is obligatory in accordance with the law.
Safeguarding, consolidating and preserving the socialist gains is a national duty.
Protecting national unity and keeping State secrets is the duty of every citizen.
Payment of taxes and public imports is a duty, in accordance with the law.
Citizens shall have the right to vote, nominate and express their opinions in referendums according to the provisions of the law.
Their participation in public life is a national duty.
Every individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and with his own signature.
Addressing public authorities should not be in the name of groups, with the exception of disciplinary organs and moral personalities.
SOVEREIGNTY OF THE LAW
Sovereignty of the law shall be the basis of rule in the State.
The State shall be subject to law.
The independence and immunity of the judiciary are two basic guarantees to safeguard rights and liberties.
Penalty shall be personal.
There shall be no crime or penalty except by virtue of the law.
No penalty shall be inflicted except by a judicial sentence.
Penalty shall be inflicted only for acts committed subsequent to the promulgation of the law prescribing them.
Any defendant is innocent until he is proved guilty before a legal court, in which he is granted the right to defend himself.
Every person accused of a crime must be provided with counsel for his defense.
The right to litigation is inalienable for all, and every citizen has the right to refer to his competent judge.
The State shall guarantee the accessibility of the judicature organs to litigants, and the rapidity of statuting on cases.
Any provision in the law stipulating the immunity of any act or administrative decision from the control of the judicature is prohibited.
The right of defense in person or by mandate is guaranteed.
The Law shall grant the financially incapable citizens the means to resort to justice and defend their rights.
No penal lawsuit shall be sued except by an order from a judicature organ and in cases defined by the law.
Any person arrested or detained should be informed, forthwith with the reasons for his arrest or detention.
He has the right to communicate, inform, and ask the help of anyone as prescribed in the law.
He must be faced, as soon as possible, with the charges directed against him.
Any person may lodge a complaint to the courts against any measure taken to restrict his individual freedom.
The law regulates the right of complaint in a manner ensuring a ruling regarding it within a definite period, or else release is imperative.
Sentences shall be passed and executed in the name of the people.
Likewise, refraining to execute sentences or obstructing them on the part of the concerned civil servants Is considered a crime punishable by law.
In this case, those whom the sentence is in favour of, have the right to sue a direct penal lawsuit before the competent court.
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
The Head of State
The Head of State is the President of the Republic.
He shall assert the sovereignty of the people, respect the Constitution and the supremacy of the law, safeguard the national unity and the socialist gains, and maintain the boundaries between authorities in a manner to ensure that each shall perform its role in the national action.
If any danger threatens the national unity or the safety of the motherland or obstructs the constitutional role of the State institutions, the President of the Republic shall take urgent measures to face this danger, direct a statement to the people and conduct a referendum on these measures within sixty days of its adoption.
The person to be elected President of the Republic must be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents and enjoy civil and political rights.
His age must not be less than 40
The President shall be elected by direct, public, secret ballot. For an applicant to be accepted as a candidate to presidency, he shall be supported by at least 250 elected members of the People’s Assembly, the Shura Council and local popular councils on governorate level, provided that those shall include at least 65 members of the People’s Assembly, 25 of the Shura Council and ten of every local council in at least 14 governorates.
The number of members of the People’s Assembly, the Shura Council and local popular councils on governorate level supporting candidature shall be raised in pro-rata to any increase in the number of any of these councils. In all cases, support may not be given to more than one candidate.
Procedures related to this process shall be regulated by the law.
Political parties, which have been founded at least five years before the starting date of candidature and have been operating uninterruptedly for this period, and whose members have obtained at least 5% of the elected members of both the People’s Assembly and the Shura Council, may nominate for presidency a member of their respective upper board, according to their own by-laws, provided he has been a member of such board for at least one consecutive year.
As an exception to the provisions of the fore-mentioned paragraph, any political party may nominate for the first presidential elections, to be conducted following the enactment of this Article, a member of its higher board, established before May 10, 2005 according to its by-law.
Candidature applications shall be submitted to an independent committee, named the Presidential Elections Committee. The committee shall be composed of the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court as a chairman and the head of the Cairo Court of Appeal, the most senior deputy of the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court, the most senior deputy of the head of the Court of Cassation, the most senior deputy of the State Council and five public figures, recognized for impartiality.
Three of the fore-mentioned public figures shall be selected by the People’s Assembly and the other two by the Shura Council upon a recommendation of the bureaus of both houses for a period of five years.
The law shall determine who will act on behalf of the chairman or any member of the committee, should there be some reason for their absence.
This committee shall exclusively have the following competences:
1- To declare the initiation of candidature and supervise procedures for declaring the final list of candidates;
2- To generally supervise balloting and vote-counting procedures;
3- To announce elections results;
4- To decide on all appeals, challenges and all matters related to its competences, including conflict of jurisdiction;
5- To draw up by-laws regulating its modus operandi and method of practicing its competences.
The committee’s resolutions shall be passed with a majority of at least seven members. Its resolutions shall be final, self-enforcing and incontestable by any means or before any authority whatsoever.
Its resolutions may not be challenged through construing or stay of execution. The law regulating presidential elections shall determine other competences for the committee.
The law shall also determine regulating rules governing the nomination of a candidate to replace another one who has vacated his seat for some reasons other than assignment within the period between the starting date of candidature and before the termination of voting.
Voting shall be conducted in one single day. The presidential elections committee shall establish committees to administer stages of the voting and ballot-counting process. The committee shall establish main committees to be composed of members of the judiciary to supervise the process in accordance with such rules and regulations as may be decided by the committee.
Election of the president shall be declared when candidates have obtained an absolute majority of the number of valid votes. In the event that none of the candidates has obtained such majority, election shall be repeated, at least after seven days, between the two candidates who have obtained the largest number of votes. Should another candidate obtain a number of valid votes equal to those of the second, he shall take part in the re-election. In this case, the candidate who has obtained the largest number of votes will be declared winner.
Voting for electing the president shall be effected, even though one single candidate has applied or even if he was the only candidate remaining due to assignment of the rest of candidates or due to failure to field another candidate in lieu of the one vacating his seat.
In this case, the candidate who has obtained the absolute majority of the number of valid votes shall be declared winner. The law shall regulate procedures to be followed in the event the candidate has failed to obtain this majority.
The President shall submit the draft law regulating the presidential elections to the Supreme Constitutional Court following endorsement by the People’s Assembly and before promulgation, to determine compliance with the Constitution.
The Court shall return its ruling in this connection within fifteen days from date of submission thereto. Should the court decide that one or more provisions of the draft law are unconstitutional; the President shall return it to the People’s Assembly to put this ruling into effect. In all cases, the court’s ruling shall be binding to all parties and all state authorities. The law shall be published in the official gazette within three days from date of issuance.
The term of the Presidency is six Gregorian years starting from the date of the announcement of the result of the plebiscite.
The President of the Republic may be re-elected for other successive terms.
Procedures for the choice of a new President of the Republic shall begin sixty days before the expiration of the term of the President in office.
The new President shall be selected at least one week before the expiration of the term.
Should this term expire without the choice of the new President being made for any reason whatsoever, the former President shall continue to exercise his functions until his successor is elected.
Before exercising his powers, the President shall take the following oath before the People’s Assembly.
"I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyality, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland".
The salary of the President of the Republic shall be fixed by law.
Any amandment in the salary shall not come into force during the Presidential term in which it is decided upon.
The President of the Republic may not receive any other salary or remuneration.
During his term the President of the Republic may not exercise any free profession or undertake any commercial, financial or industrial activity.
Nor may he acquire or take on lease any State property, sell to or exchange with the State any property of his whatsoever.
If on account of any temporary obstacle the President of the Republic is unable to carry out his functions, he shall delegate his powers to a vice-president.
In case of resignation, the President shall address the letter of resignation to the People’s Assembly.
In case of the vacancy of the Presidential Office or the permanent disability of the President of the Republic, the President of the People’s Assembly shall temporarily assume the Presidency; and, if at that time, the People’s Assembly is dissolved, the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the Presidency, however, on condition that neither one shall nominate himself for the Presidency.
The People’s Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of President.
The President of the Republic shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the day of the vacancy of the Presidential Office.
Any charge against the President of high treason or of committing a criminal act shall be made upon a proposal by at least one-third of the members of the People’s Assembly.
No impeachment shall be issued except upon the approval of a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members.
The President shall be suspended from the exercise of his duty as from the issuance of the impeachment.
The Vice-President shall take over the Presidency temporarily until the decision concerning the impeachment is taken.
The President of the Republic shall be tried by a special tribunal set up by law.
The law shall also organise the trial procedures and define the penalty.
If he is found guilty, he shall be relieved of his post, without prejudice to other penalties.
The Llgislature, The People’s Assembly
The People’s Assembly shall exercise the legislative power and approve the general policy of the State, the general plan of economic and social development and the general budget of the State.
It shall exercise control over the work of the executive authority in the manner prescribed by the Constitution.
The law shall determine the constituencies into which the State shall be divided and the number of elected members of the People’s Assembly must be at least 350
persons, of which one half at least must be workers and farmers elected by direct secret public balloting.
The definition of the worker and the farmer shall be made by law.
The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members not exceeding ten.
The necessary conditions stipulated in the members of the People’s Assembly shall be defined by law.
The rules of election and referendum shall be determined by law, while the ballot shall be conducted under the supervision of members of a judiciary organ.
Employees of the State and of the public sector nominate themselves for membership in the People’s Assembly.
The member of the people’s Assembly shall devote himself to membership in the Assembly except in cases specified by law.
His post or work shall be held over for him in accordance with the provisions of the law.
The member of the People’s Assembly shall take the following oath before the Assembly before entering upon his duties:
"I swear by God Almighty, that I shall preserve the safety of the nation and the Republican regime, shall attend to the interests of the people and shall respect the Constitution and law".
Members of the People’s Assembly shall receive a remuneration determined by the law.
The duration of the People’s Assembly term is five Gregorian years from the date of its first meeting.
Elections for renewal of the Assembly shall take place within the sixty days preceding the termination of the term.
The People’s Assembly shall be the only authority competent to decide upon the validity of its members.
A Court of Causation shall be competent to investigate the validity of contestation presented to the Assembly, on being referred to it by the President of the Assembly.
The contestation shall be referred to the Court of Cassation within fifteen days as from the date on which the Assembly was informed of it, while the investigation shall be completed within ninety days from the date on which the contestation is referred to the Court of Cassation.
The result of the investigation and the decision reached by the Court shall be submitted to the Assembly to decide upon the validity of the contestation within sixty days from the date of submission of the result of the investigation to the Assembly.
The membership will not be deemed invalid except by a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members.
If the seat of a member becomes vacant before the end of his term, a successor shall be elected or appointed to it, within sixty days from the date of the communication to the Assembly of the occurrence of the vacancy.
The term of the new member shall extend until the end of the term of his predecessor.
No member of the People’s Assembly shall, during his mandate, purchase or rent any State property; or lease or sell to the State or barter with it regarding any part of his property, or conclude a contract with the State in his capacity as entrepreneur, importer or contractor.
No membership in the People’s Assembly shall be revoked except on the grounds of loss of confidence or status or of one of the conditions of membership, or the loss of the member’s status as a worker or farmer upon which he was elected or the violation of the member’s mandate.
The membership shall be deemed invalid on the grounds of a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members.
The People’s Assembly alone may accept the resignation of its members .
Members of the People’s Assembly shall not be censured for any opinions or thoughts expressed by them in the performance of their tasks in the Assembly or its committees.
No member of the People’s Assembly shall be subject to a criminal prosecution without the permission of the Assembly except in cases of flagrant delicto.
If the Assembly is not in session, the permission of the President of the Assembly must be taken.
The Assembly must be notified of the measures taken in its first subsequent session.
The seat of the People’s Assembly shall be Cairo.
However, in exceptional circumstances, it may meet another city, at the request of the President of the Republic or the majority of the Assembly members.
Any meeting of the Assembly in other than its designated seat is illicit and the resolutions passed in it shall be considered invalid.
The President of the Republic shall convoke the People’s Assembly for its ordinary annual session before the second Thursday of November.
If it is not convoked, the Assembly shall meet, by force of the Constitution, on the said day.
The session of the ordinary meeting shall continue for at least seven months.
The President of the Republic may call the People’s Assembly to an extraordinary meeting, in case of necessity, or upon a request signed by a majority of the Assembly members.
The President of the Republic shall announce the dismissal of the extraordinary meeting.
The People’s assembly shall elect, in the first meeting of its ordinary annual session, a president and a vice-president for the term of the session.
If the seat of anyone of them is vacated, the Assembly shall elect a replacement, whose term will last until the end of his predecessors term.
The People’s Assembly shall lay down its own rules of procedure organising the manner of the fulfilment of its tasks.
The people’s Assembly alone shall be entitled to preserve order inside it.
The President of the Assembly shall be entrusted with this task.
The meetings of the People’s Assembly shall be public.
However, a meeting in camera may be held at the request of the president of the Republic or of the government or of its Prime Minister or at least twenty of its members.
The Assembly shall then decide whether the debate on the question submitted to it shall take place in a public meeting or in a meeting in camera.
The meeting of the Assembly shall be considered invalid if the majority of its members are not present.
The resolution of the Assembly shall be adopted by an absolute majority of the attending members, in cases other than those for which a specific majority is required.
Every article of the draft laws shall be put to a vote.
In case of a tie vote, the question on which the debate had taken place shall be rejected.
The president of the Republic shall have the right, in case of necessity or in exceptional cases and on the authorisation of the People’s Assembly upon the approval of a majority of two thirds of its members, to issue resolutions having the force of law.
The authorisation must be for a limited period of time during which the subjects of the resolutions and the grounds upon which they are based, must be determined.
The resolutions must be submitted to the People’s Assembly in the first meeting after the end of the authorisation period.
If they are not submitted or if they are submitted and not approved by the Assembly, they shall cease to have the force of law.
The President of the Republic and every member of the People’s Assembly shall have the right to propose laws.
Every draft law shall be referred to a committee of the Assembly which will study it and submit a report concerning it.
Draft laws presented by members of the People’s Assembly shall not be referred to this committee unless they are first referred to a special committee which will study them and give an opinion on the suitability of their consideration by the Assembly and after the Assembly decides to consider them.
Every draft law proposed by a member and rejected by the Assembly cannot be presented again in the course of the same session.
The president of the Republic shall have the right to promulgate laws or object to them.
If the President of the Republic objects to a draft law ratified by the People’s Assembly he shall refer it back to the Assembly within thirty days from the Assembly’s communication of it.
If the draft law is not referred back within this period, it is considered a law shall be promulgated.
If it is referred back to the Assembly on the said date and approved once again by a majority of two- thirds of the members, it shall be considered a law and shall be promulgated.
The people’s Assembly shall approve the general plan for economic and social development.
The manner of the preparation of the plan and of its submission to the people’s Assembly shall be determined by law.
The draft general budget shall be submitted to the people’s Assembly at least two months before the beginning of the fiscal year.
It shall be considered in effect after approval.
The draft budget shall be voted upon title by title and shall be promulgated by a law.
The people’s Assembly may not effect any modification in the draft budget except with the approval of the government.
In case the ratification of the new budget does not take place before the beginning of the fiscal year, the old budget shall be acted on pending such ratification.
The manner of the preparation of the budget as well as the determination of the fiscal year shall be determined by law .
The approval of the people’s Assembly shell be considered necessary for the transfer of any funds one title of the budget to another title, as well as for any expenditure not included in it or excess of its estimates, and this shall be issued by a law.
The provisions regulating the budgets and accounts of public organisations and organisms shall be prescribed by law.
The final account of the State budget shall be submitted to the people’s Assembly within a period not exceeding one year from the date of the expiration of the fiscal year.
It shall be voted-upon title by title and issued by a law.
The annual report of the Central Agency for Accounting and its observations must be submitted to the People’s Assembly.
The Assembly has the right to demand from the Central Agency for Accounting any data or other pertinent reports.
The imposition, modification or abolition of general taxes cannot be effected except in the cases decreed by law.
No one may be exempted from their payment except in the cases specified by law.
No one may be asked to pay additional taxes or imposts except in the cases specified by law.
The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement shall be regulated.
The Executive Authority shall not contract a loan or bind itself to a project entailing expenditure of funds from the State Treasury in the course of a subsequent period, except with the approval of the People’s Assembly.
The rules governing the granting of salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsides and bonuses from the state Treasury shall be determined by law which shall also regulate the cases excepted from these rules, and the authorities charged with their application.
The rules and procedures for granting concessions relating to investment of the sources of natural wealth and of public utilities shall be determined by law; disposal, free of charge, of real estate properties belonging to the State or the ceding of moveable properties of the State and the rules and problems relating to them shall also be determined by law.
Every member of the People’s Assembly shall be entitled to address questions to the Prime Minister or any of his deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their jurisdiction.
The Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and the persons they delegate on their behalf shall answer the questions put to them by members.
The member may withdraw his question at any time; this same question may not be transformed into an interpellation in the same session.
Every member of the People’s Assembly shall be entitled to address Inteprellations to the Prime Minister or his deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their jurisdiction.
Debate on an interpllation shall take place at least seven days after its submission, except in the cases of urgency as decided by the Assembly and with the government’s consent.
The Ministers shall be responsible collectively for the general policy of the State before the People’s Assembly; also every Minister shall be responsible for the acts of his Ministry.
The People’s Assembly may decide to withdraw its confidence from any of the Prime Minister’s deputies or from many of the Ministers or their deputies.
A motion of no confidence should not be submitted except after an interpellation.
Such a motion should be proposed by one-tenth of the Assembly’s members.
The Assembly should not decide on such a motion until after at least three days from the date of its presentation.
Withdrawal of confidence shall be pronounced by the majority of the members of the Assembly.
The People’s Assembly shall determine the responsibility of the Prime Minister, on a proposal by one- tenth of its members.
Such a decision should be taken by the majority of the members of the Assembly.
It may not be taken except after an interpellation addressed to the government, and after at least three days from the date of its presentation.
In the event that such responsibility is determined, the Assembly shall submit a report to the President of the Republic including the elements of the subject, the conclusions reached on the matter and the reasons behind it.
The President of the Republic may return such a report to the Assembly within ten days.
If the Assembly ratifies it once again, the President of the Republic may put the subject of discord to a refrendum. Such a refrendum shall take place within thirty days from the date of the last ratification of the assembly, in which case the assembly sessions shall be terminated.
If the result of the refrendum is in support of the government, the Assembly shall be considered dissolved, otherwise the President of the Republic shall accept the resignation of the council of Ministries.
If the Assembly withdraw its confidence from any of the Prim Minister’s deputies or of the Ministers or of thier deputies, they shall resign thier office.
The Prime Minister shall submit his resignation to the President of the Republic if he is found responsible before the Peaple’s Assembly.
Any twenty members, at least, of the Peaple’s Assembly may ask for the discussion of a public question to ascertain the government’s policy regarding such a question.
The members of the peaple’s Assembly shall be entitled to express their opinions concerning public question before the Prime Minister or any of his deputies or of the Ministers. Article 131
The People’s Assembly shall form an ad hoc committee or entrust any of its committees with the inspection of the activities of any of the administrative departments or the general establishments or any administrative or executive organ or any of the public projects, for the purpose of finding facts and informing the Assembly as to the actual financial or administrative or economic positions or for conducting investigations into a subject related to one of the said activities.
In the course of its work, such a committee shall be entitled to collect whatever evidence it deems necessary and to subpoena all those it needs.
All executive and administrative bodies shall answer the demands of the committee and put under its disposal all the documents and evidence it asks for this purpose.
At the inaugural meeting of the ordinary session of the People’s Assembly, the President of the Republic shall give a statement of the general policy of the State.
He shall also give other statements before the Assembly.
The Assembly is entitled to discuss the statement of the President of the Republic.
After the formation of the Cabinet and at the inaugural meeting of the ordinary session of the People’s Assembly, the Prime Minister shall submit the programme of the government.
The People’s Assembly is entitled to discuss such programme.
The Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies may become members of the People’s Assembly.
Those of them who are not members may attend the sessions and committees of the Assembly.
The Prime Minister and Ministers shall be heard in the People’s Assembly and its committees whenever they request to speak.
They may be assisted by high-ranking officials.
A Minister shall have no counted vote when votes are taken, unless he is a member.
The President of the Republic shall not dissolve the People’s Assembly unless it is necessary and after a referendum of the people.
The President of the Republic shall issue a decision terminating the sessions of the Assembly and conducting a referendum within thirty days.
If the total majority of the voters approve the dissolution of the Assembly, the President of the Republic shall issue the decision of dissolution.
The decision dissolving the Assembly shall comprise an invitation to the electors to conduct new elections for the People’s Assembly within a period not exceeding sixty days from the date of the declaration of the referendum results.
The new Assembly shall convene during a period of ten days following the completion of elections.
The Executive SECTION II
The President of the Republic
The President of the Republic shall assume executive power and shall exercise it in the manner stipulated in the Constitution.
The President of the Republic in conjunction with the government, shall lay down the general policy of the State and supervise its implementation in the manner prescribed in the Constitution.
The President of the Republic may appoint one or more vice-presidents, define their jurisdiction and relieve them of their posts.
The rules relating to the calling into account of the President of the Republic shall be applicable to the Vice-Presidents.
Before exercising his functions, the Vice-President shall take the following oath before the President of the Republic:
"I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland".
The President of the Republic shall appoint the Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies and relieve them of the posts.
The President of the Republic shall have the right to call a meeting of the Council of Ministers and to attend its meeting.
He shall also preside over the meetings he attends.
He shall be entitled to demand reports from the Ministers.
The President of the Republic shall appoint the civil and military officials, and the diplomatic representatives, and dismiss them in the manner prescribed by the law.
He shall also accredit the diplomatic representatives of foreign states.
The President of the Republic shall issue the necessary regulations for the implementation of the laws, in the manner that would not modify, obstruct or exempt them from execution.
He shall have the right to vest others with authority to issue them.
The law may determine whoever issues the decisions requisite or its implementation.
The President of the Republic shall issue the control regulations.
The President of Republic shall issue the decisions necessary for organising the public services and interests.
In case it becomes necessary, during the recess between the sessions of the People’s Assembly, to take measures which cannot suffer delay, the President of the Republic shall issue decisions in their respect, which shall have the force of law.
Such decisions must be submitted to the People’s Assembly within fifteen days from their date of issuance if the Assembly is standing.
In case of dissolution or recess of the Assembly, they shall be submitted at its first meeting.
In case they are not submitted, their force of law disappears with retroactive effect, without need for issuing a decision to this effect.
If they are submitted and are not ratified, their force of law disappears with retroactive effect, unless the Assembly ratifies their validity in the previous period or settling their effects in another way.
The President of the Republic shall proclaim a state of emergency in the manner prescribed by the law.
Such proclamation must be submitted to the People’s Assembly within the subsequent fifteen days in order that the Assembly may take a decision thereon.
In case the People’s Assembly is dissolved, the matter shall be submitted to the new Assembly at its first meeting.
In all cases, the proclamation of the state of emergency shall be for a limited period, which may not be extended unless by approval of the Assembly.
The President of Republic shall have the right of granting amnesty or commute a sentence.
As for general amnesty, it can only be granted by virtue of a law.
The President of Republic shall be the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
He shall be the authority who declares war, after the approval of the People’s Assembly.
The President of Republic shall conclude treaties and communicate them to the People’s Assembly, accompanied with a suitable clarification.
They shall have the force of law after their conclusion, ratification and publication according to the established procedure.
However, peace treaties, alliance pacts, commercial and maritime and all the treaties involving modifications in the territory of the State, or having connection with the rights of sovereignty, or which lay upon the Treasury of the State certain charges not provided for in the budget, must acquire the approval of the People’s Assembly.
The President of the Republic may call a referendum of the people on important matters affecting the supreme interests of the country.
The government shall be the supreme executive and administrative organ of the State.
It shall consist of the Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies.
The Prime Minister shall supervise the work of the government.
Whoever is appointed Minister or Deputy-Minister must be an Egyptian, not less than 35
Gregorian years of age, and enjoying full civil and political rights.
Before exercising the functions of their posts, the members of the Cabinet shall take the following oath before the President of the Republic:
"I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the interests of the people fully, and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland".
The Cabinet shall exercise the following functions in particular:
a) Laying down the general policy of the State, and controlling its implementation in collaboration with the President of the Republic in accordance with the Presidential laws and decrees.
b) Directing, coordinating and following up the works of the ministries, their affiliated organs, and the public organisations and institutions.
c) Issuing administrative and executive decisions in accordance with the laws and decrees, as well as supervising their implementation.
d) Preparing the draft laws and decrees.
e) Preparing the draft of the general budget of the State.
f) Preparing the overall plan.
g) Contracting and granting loans in accordance with the rules of the Constitution.
h) Supervising the implementation of laws, maintaining State security and protecting the rights of the citizens and the interests of the State.
The Minister shall be the administrative supreme chief of his ministry.
He shall undertake the laying down of the ministry’s policy in the framework of the State’s general policy, and shall undertake its implementation.
During the term of his office, the Minister shall not practice a free profession - a commercial or financial or industrial occupation, buy or rent any State property, or lease or sell to or barter with the State any of his own property.
The President of the Republic and the People’s Assembly shall have the right to bring a minister to trial for crimes committed by him in the performance of, or because of, the duties of his post.
The decision of the People’s Assembly to charge a minister shall be adopted upon a proposal submitted by at least one-fifth of its members.
No indictment shall be issued except by a majority of two- thirds of the members of the Assembly.
Any minister indicted shall cease to function until his case is decided.
The termination of his services shall not prevent legal action being taken or pursued against him.
The trial of a minister, the procedures and guarantees of the trial, and the indictment shall be in accordance with the manner prescribed by the law.
These rules shall be in force with regard to the Deputy Ministers.
The Local Administration
The Arab Republic of Egypt shall be divided into administrative units, enjoying moral entities, among which shall be governorates, cities and villages.
Other administrative units may be established, having moral entities, if this may be required by the common interest.
Local People’s Councils shall be gradually formed, on the level of administrative units, by direct election, providing that half of their members at least shall be workers and farmers.
The law shall provide for the gradual transfer of authority to them.
Presidents and Vice-Presidents, of the Councils shall be selected from among their members by mean of elections.
The law shall prescribe the way of formation of the Local People’s Councils, their competencies, their financial resources, the guarantees for their competencies, their financial resources, the guarantees for their members, their relations to the People’s Assembly and to the government, and their role in preparing and implementing the development plan and in controlling the various activities.
The National Specialized Councils
Specialized Councils shall be established on the national level to assist in laying down the general policy of the State in all fields of national endeavour.
These councils are to be affiliated to the President of the Republic.
A Presidential decree shall determine the formation and functions of each council.
The Judiciary Authority
The Judiciary Authority shall be independent.
It shall be exercised by courts of justice of different sorts and classes, which shall issue their judgments in accordance with the law.
Judges shall be independent, subject to no other authority but the law.
No authority may intervene in the cases or in justice affairs.
The law shall determine the judiciary organisations and their functions, organise the way of their formation, prescribe the conditions and measures for the appointment and transfer for their members.
The status of judges shall be irrevocable.
The law shall regulate the disciplinary actions with regard to them.
The sessions of the courts shall be made public, unless a court decides to hold them in camera, for considerations of public order or morality.
In all cases, judgments shall be pronounced in public sessions.
The people shall contribute in maintaining justice, in accordance with the manner, and the limits, prescribed by the law.
The law shall regulate the organsiation of the State Security Courts, and prescribe their competencies and the conditions to be fulfilled by those who occupy the office judge in them.
The State Council shall be an independent judiciary organisation which has the competence decisions in administrative disputes, and disciplinary cases.
The law shall determine its other competencies.
A Supreme Council, presided over by the President of the Republic, shall supervise the affairs of the judiciary organisations.
The law shall prescribe its formation, its competencies, and its rules of action.
It shall be consulted with regard to draft laws organising the affairs of the judiciary organisations.
Supreme Constitutional Court
The Supreme Constitutional Court shall be an independent judiciary body, having its own moral person in the Arab Republic of Egypt, and having its seat in Cairo.
The Supreme Constitutional Court alone shall undertake the judicial control in respect of the constitutionality of the laws and regulations, and shall undertake the explanation of the legislative texts, all of which in accordance with the manner prescribed by the law.
The law shall determine the other competencies of the court, and regulate the procedure to be followed before it.
The law shall organise the way of formation of the Supreme Constitutional Court, and prescribe the conditions required in its members, their rights and immunities.
The status of members of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall be irrevocable.
The Court shall call to account its members, in the manner prescribed by the law.
The judgment issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court in constitutional cases, and its decisions concerning the interpretation of legislative texts, shall be published in the Official Gazette.
The law shall organise the effects subsequent to a decision concerning the unconstitutionality of legislative text.
The Socialist Public Prosecutor
The Socialist Public Prosecutor shall be responsible for taking the procedures which secure the people’s rights, the safety of the society and its political system, the preservation of the socialist achievements, and commitment to the socialist behaviour.
The law shall define his other competencies.
He shall be subject to the control the People’s Assembly in accordance to what is prescribed by law.
Armed Forces and The National Defense Council
The State alone shall establish the Armed Forces which shall belong the people.
Their duty shall be to protect the country, safeguard its territory and security, and protect the socialist achievements of the popular strife.
No organisation or group may establish military or semi-military .
The law shall prescribe the conditions of service and promotion for the Armed Forces.
General mobilisation shall be organised in accordance with the law.
A council shall be established, the National Defence Council, over which the President of the Republic shall preside, and which shall undertake the examination of the matter pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety and security of the country.
The law shall prescribe its other prerogatives.
The law shall organise military judiciary, prescribing their competencies in the framework of the principles in the Constitution.
Police Authority shall be a civil disciplinary body.
Its Supreme Chief shall be the President of the Republic.
Police Authority shall perform its duty in the people’s services, maintain peace and security for the citizens, preserve order, public security and morality, and undertake the implementation of the duties imposed upon it by laws and regulations, in the manner prescribed by the law.
General and Transitional Provisions
The city of Cairo shall be the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The law shall prescribe the national flag and the provisions relating thereto, as well as the State emblem and the provisions relating thereto.
Provisions of the laws shall apply only from the date of their entry into force, and shall have no retroactive effect.
However, provisions to the contrary may be made, in other than criminal matters, with the approval of the majority of the members of the People’s Assembly.
All laws shall be published in the Official Gazette within two weeks from the date of their issuance.
They shall be put in force after a month following the date of their publication unless another date is fixed for that.
The President of the Republic, as well as the People’s Assembly, may request the amendment of one or more of the Constitution articles.
The articles to be revised and the reasons justifying such amendment must be mentioned in the request for amendment.
In case the request emanates from the People’s Assembly, it should be signed by at least one third of the Assembly members.
In all cases, the Assembly shall discuss the amendment in principle, and the decision in this respect shall be taken by the majority of its members.
If the request is rejected, the amendment of the same particular articles may not be requested again before the expiration of one year from the date of such rejection.
If the People’s Assembly approves the principle of revision, the articles requested to be mended shall be discussed after two months from the date of the said approval.
If the modification is approved by two-thirds of the members of the Assembly, it must be referred to the people for a plebiscite.
If the amendment is approved, it shall be considered in force from the date of the announcement of the result of the plebiscite.
The term of the present President of the Republic shall be terminated at the end of six years from the date of announcing his election as President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.
All the provisions of the laws and regulations prior to the proclamation of this Constitution shall remain valid and in force.
However, they may be repealed or amended in this Constitution.
Wherever occurring in the Constitution with regard to the election of the President, the word "elections" shall replace the world "referendum".
This Constitution shall be in force as from the date of announcing the approval of the people, in this respect, in the plebiscite.
The Shoura Assembly
The Shoura Assembly is concerned with the study and proposal of what it deems necessary to preserve the principles of the July 23, 1952 Revolution and the May 15, 1971 Revolution, to consolidate national unity and social peace, to protect the alliance of the working forces of the people and the socialist gains as well as the basic components of society, its supreme values, its rights and liberties and its public duties, and to entrench the democratic socialist system and widen its scope.
The Shoura Assembly shall be consulted in the following:
1- Proposals for the amendment for one or more articles of the Constitution.
2- Draft laws complementary to the Constitution.
3- Draft of the general plan for social and economic development.
4- Peace treaties, alliances and all treaties affecting the territorial integrity of the State or those concerning sovereignty rights.
5- Draft laws referred to the Assembly by the President of the Republic.
6- Whatever matters referred to the Assembly by the President of the Republic relative to the general policy of the State or its policy regarding Arab or foreign affairs.
The Assembly shall submit to the President of the Republic and the People’s Assembly its opinion such matters.
The Shoura Assembly shall be composed of a number of members defined by the law, not less than 132 members.
Two thirds of the members shall be elected by direct secret public balloting, half of whom at least must be workers and farmers.
The President of the Republic shall appoint the other third.
The law shall determine the electoral constituencies of the Shoura Assembly, the number of members in every constituency, and the necessary conditions stipulated in the elected or appointed members of the Shoura Assembly.
The term of membership of the Shoura Assembly is six years, whereas renewed election and appointment of 50% of the total number of members, whether elected or appointed, is every three years as defined by law.
It is always possible to re-elect or re-appoint those membership has expired.
The Shura Assembly shall elect a president and two vice presidents at its first ordinary annual session for a period of three years.
If one of these offices becomes vacant, the Assembly shall elect a successor for the rest of the term.
No member can hold office in both People’s Assembly and the Shura Assembly at one and the same time.
The Prime Minister and his deputies, the ministers and government officials shall not be held responsible to the Shura Assembly.
The president of the Republic has the right to make a statement upon the general policy of the State or upon any other matter before a joint meeting of the People’s Assembly and the Shura Assembly, headed by the Speaker of the People’s Assembly.
The President of the Republic has the right to make whatever statements he wishes before the Shoura Assembly.
The prime minister and the ministers and other government officials may make statements before the Shoura Assembly or before one of its committees upon a subject that comes within his competence.
The Prime Minister and his deputies and other government officials shall be heard by the Shura Assembly and its committees upon their request, and they may seek the assistance of any government official, as they see fit.
However, the vote of the minister or government official is not valid upon any count of votes unless he is a member.
The president of the Republic may not dissolve the Shura Assembly except when necessary, while such a decision should comprise a call to hold new elections for the Shura Assembly within a period of sixty days from the date of its dissolution.
The Assembly shall hold its first meeting ten days from the date of its election.
The following articles of the Constitution shall apply to the Shura Assembly:
(89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 129, 130, 134), insofar as they are not incompatible with the stipulations cited in this part:
The Shura Assembly and its President shall exercise the competencies specified in the aforementioned articles.
The Press is a popular, independent authority exercising its revocation in accordance with the stipulations of the Constitution and the law.
The Press shall exercise its true vocation freely and independently in the service of society through all means of expression.
It shall thus interpret the trend of public opinion, while contributing to its formation and orientation within the framework of the basic components of society, the safeguard of the liberties, rights and public duties and respect of the sanctity of the private lives of citizens, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by law.
The freedom of the press is guaranteed and press censorship is forbidden.
Also forbidden is to threaten, suppress, or foreclose a newspaper through administrative measures, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by law.
The freedom of body corporate, whether public or private, or political parties to publish or own newspapers is safeguarded in accordance with the law.
The financing and ownership of newspapers come under the supervision of the people, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by law.
Journalists have the right to obtain news and information according to the regulations set by law.
Their activities are not subject to any authority other than the law.
A Supreme Press Council shall deal with matters concerning the press.
The law shall define its composition, competencies and its relationship with the State authorities.
The Supreme Press Council shall exercise its competencies with a view to consolidate the freedom of the press and its independence, to uphold the basic foundations of society, and to guarantee the soundness of national unity and social peace as stipulated in the constitution and defined by law.