09 August 2020 01:51 PM

Republic of Algeria

Monday، 20 July 2009 12:00 AM

Republic of Algeria

By: Hana Sayed

Historical background:

  • In 1830: occupied where a resistance group was formed by Prince Abdul Kader Al-Gazaeri who unified the Arabs and the Berbers in . 
  • In 1871: became a French province and in 1900, it was granted a self-rule. 
  • In August 1958: the Liberation Army announced the formation of a temporary government.
  • In 1959: admitted the right of to self-determination.
  • In July 1962: General de Gaulle announced the independence of thus ending nearly 132 years of occupation.
  • On September 25, 1962: Ahmed Bin Bella became the first president of the free .
  • In 1965: Houari Boumedienne assumed office as a president till his death in 1978.
  • In 1979: Chadli Bendjedid became ’s president till January 1992.
  • In 1990s: witnessed a vicious circle of violence after the army intervened to prevent the Islamic Salvation Front from assuming power after it won the first multi-party elections.

The front replied by performing many terrorist operations all over which took the lives of more than 100,000 persons. As a result, president Bendjedid dissolved the National Assembly and resigned. 

  • On January 14, 1982: The High Council of State was formed to choose a new president for the country. 
  • President Mohamed Boudiaf (from January 16 till June 29, 1992) assumed office. After his assassination, President Ali Belkaf (from July 2 1992 till January 31, 1994) assumed office. Then Liamine Zéroual assumed office (from January 31, 1994 till April 27, 1999).
  • On April 15, 1999: Abdelaziz Bouteflika was elected as the president of after he obtained 73,79% in the election.
  • In 2000, the military wing of the Islamic Salvation Front was dissolved to help realize national reconciliation in
  • On April 8, 2004: Bouteflika was reelected as a president where he obtained 84,99% in the election.

Basic information:

Location:

is located in the northern part of Africa bordering the Mediterranean in the north, in the east and in the west.

Area:

is 2,381,740 square kilometers being the second largest African state after .

Population:

Populations hit 32,531,853 million (2005 estimates).

Ethnic structure of :

  • The inhabitants of are a blend of Arabs and Berbers who form 99% of the population where the Europeans form 1%.
  • Most of the Algerians descend from Berber origins where the native Berbers live in the eastern parts in .
  • The Muslim Berbers stick to their Muslim identity and they seek self-rule. Finally, the Algerian government allowed the teaching of the Berber language in public schools.

Language:

The Arabic language is the official language of the state besides some other dialects as the Imazighen where French is used far and wide among the educated people.

Capital:

Algiers

Religion:

Islam is the official religion of the state where 99% of the populations are Muslims. Jews and Christians represent 1% of the population.

Important cities:

Annaba, Oran, Constantine , Tlemcen, Tennes and Bejaia.

Regime:

Presidential.

Independence Day:

July 5, 1962.

National Day:

November 1, which is the day of the Algerian Revolution.

Currency:

Algerian Dinar.

Flag description:

The Algerian flag consists of two equal vertical strips in green and white. This is plus a pentagon star inside a red crescent. Red and star are traditional symbols of Islam.

Economic status

  • The hydrocarbon sector is the backbone of the Algerian economy given that it represents 60% of the state’s income and 30% of the Gross Domestic Product and contributes by 90% to the export revenues of the country.
  • ranks fifth in the whole world as regards natural gas reserve and it is the second largest gas exporting country in the world. ’s oil reserve ranks 14 all over the world.
  • In mid-1990s, the financial and economic status somehow improved due to the reforms which the International Monetary Fund supported. The Algerian economy made use of the immense trade surplus from 2000 till 2004.
  • The government exerts relentless efforts to attract more foreign and local investments.

Economic indicators

- GDP: $ 273 billion.

- Growth rate: 7.1%.

- Inflation rate: 4.7%.

- Per-capita income: $ 7, 300 per annum.

- Unemployment rate: 25.4%.

- Rate of those living under the line of poverty: 23%.

Different sectors contribution to GDP

- Agriculture: 10.3%.

- Industry: 57.4%.

- Services: 32%.

- Investments rate: 26.2%.

- Total workforce: 9,91 million workers (2004 estimates).

Distribution of the workforce

Agriculture: 14%.

- Industry: 13%.

- Construction businesses: 10%.

- Public sector: 32%

- Business: 14.6%.

- Other fields: 16%.

- Foreign currency reserve: USD 46 billion (May 2005 estimates) against USD 11,9 billion in 1999.

- Volume of foreign aid: USD 122,8 million (2005 estimates).

Basic characteristics of the economic sectors:

Industry sector:

possesses an important industrial sector which comprises: oil industries, light industries, the production of natural gas, some electrical industries, petrochemical industries, carpet industries, leather industries, cement industries, sugar industry and fish canning industries. The rate of economic growth hit 6% (2004 estimates).

Mining sector

enjoys a number of natural wealth resources such as oil, gas, iron, phosphate, uranium, lead, mercury, zinc and copper.

Oil production:

produces 1.2 million barrel per day where it consumes 209,000 barrel per day.

- Oil reserve: 12, 46 billion barrel (2005 estimates).

Natural gas production: 80,3 billion cubic meters where Algerians consume 22,32 cubic meters.

Natural gas exports: 57, 98 billion cubic meters.

Natural gas reserve: 4, 739 trillion cubic meters.

Agriculture sector:

The agricultural sector contributes to ’s GDP by 6%. The important agricultural products in are: wheat, potato, dates, barely, grape, olive fruits and sugar beet. Generally speaking, suffers from soil erosion and desertification and pollution owing to throwing oil waste products in the rivers. Also, suffers from the rarity of fresh water.

Pasturing and cattle raising plus fishing are important activities in where animal wealth contributes to the GDP by 25%. The area of the pasturing lands hit 9% of the total area of the country.

Foreign trade Total export values: USD 49,59 billion (2005 estimates).

Important exports: Oil and gas exports hit 97% of the Algerian export.

Importing countries:

: 17.2%.

- : 11.4%.

- : 11.5%.

- Unites States: 22.6%.

- : 7.5%.

- : 6.1%.

Total value of imports: $ 22, 53 billion (2005 estimates).

Important imports: Food commodities, consuming commodities and beverages.

Exporting countries:

- : 30%.

- : 8.5%.

- : 5.1%.

- : 5.5%.

- : 5.1%.

- : 4.3%.

Transport

Local trade is served by railways which hit 3973 km where the total area of roads hit 104000 km.

Important ports: Ennaba, Arzeyu, Bejabah, Beni Saf, Tennes, Skekda, Meshtengham and Delleez.

Trade navy

The total number of ships hit 136 where the cargo of every ship hits 1000 tons.

Types of ships: 9 cargo ships, 23 goods transfer ships, 6 chemicals tankers, 10 liquefied gas tankers, 4 oil tankers and 12 ships for loading and unloading.

Airports: 136

Tourism

Out of the tourist attractions in , seven were enlisted in the list of the world heritage: Beni Hammad monuments, Wadi Mezab, Jameela monuments, Retebaza, Gasabah monuments.

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