09 December 2022 09:04 AM

Egypt and Syria

Wednesday، 07 July 2010 12:00 AM

The Egyptian-Syrian relationship is considered a model for strong and close relation, as the two countries are bonded together with historic, political, economic, social and cultural bonds that have helped the movement of individuals between the two countries.

Throughout their history, the Egyptian-Syrian relations have been characterized as distinguished relations that find their roots in a common history.


The experience of the unity that was established between Egypt and Syria in 1958 did not arise from a vacuum, and the establishment of the United Arab Republic was just  a link in a long and continuous chain that formed a historical bond which links Egypt and Syria and creates features and interactions between the two countries.


Although the separatist movement arose in Syria in 1961 and then the revolution of 3/8/1963, it was expected  that other attempts would follow to re-establish another organizational framework governing Egyptian-Syrian relations, such as the April 17th 1963 Charter, which was called The unity Agreement between Egypt, Syria and Iraq.

There was also the agreement of the Union of Arab Republics signed in Benghazi on April 17, 1971 among  Egypt, Syria and Libya. All  those experiences confirm the importance of the Egyptian Syrian relationship as a vital and pivotal relationship towards common challenges on the regional and international arenas.

In June 2013, former President Mohamed Morsi announced terminating diplomatic relations with the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and then he was removed from power in July 2013, and it was agreed to open a diplomatic outlet through consular work to serve the two countries' citizens.

 

 


Political Relations

Relations between Egypt and Syria is characterized along its history as a special relationship rooted in common history, and therefore the experience of unity that has existed between Egypt and Syria in 1958 did not come from vacuum. The United Arab Republic was born following a long series of interactions between the two countries.

The Egyptian-Syrian relationship is vital and pivotal facing the common challenges on the regional and international arenas. These relations have been chilly after the secession period, however things returned to normal by the late President Hafez al-Assad corrective movement in 1970, which was crowned by the 1973 war, and achievement of an outright Arabic military victory.

Egyptian-Syrian relations continued to converge following the late President Hafez al-Assad, Egypt has taken a position supportive of Syria.

Mutual Visits

On 19/4/2015: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met former head of the Syrian Opposition Coalition Ahmad Al Jarba. They discussed the recent developments of the Syrian crisis and efforts exerted to unite the Syrian opposition factions as well as supporting a political solution within the framework of Geneva I Conference. Shoukry confirmed the importance of maintaining the unity of Syria and reaching a political solution that guarantees achieving the aspirations of the Syrian people.

On 7/3/2015: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met a delegation of Syrian opposition figures. The meeting is meant to discuss a political solution to the conflict in Syria that will ensure the unity and independence of the country. During the current visit to Egypt, the Syrian delegation met also a number of officials as part of preparations for the Syrian national opposition conference.

On 20/4/20013, 3/11/2003, 11/9/2004, 16/3/2005 and 28/10/2005: Former president Hosni Mubarak visited Syria.

On 17/2/2003, 7/7/2003, 5/4/2004, 28/7/2004, 23/11/2004, 20/12/2005 and 22/6/2005: President Bashar al-Assad visited Egypt

Economic Relations

Table of economic trade, figures in million U.S dollars:-

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

Year

615

595

550

259

194

Egyptian Exports

732

410

383

135

107

Egyptian Imports

1374

1005

933

394

301

Trade volume

-117

185

167

124

87

Trade Balance

Main Egyptian Exports to Syria:

Cement,Cosmetics,Dried beans,Rice,Iron & Steel,Glass Products,Cheese,Food preparations,Peanuts

Main Egyptian Imports:-

Yarns, Lentils,Apples,Cotton ,Ready-made clothes,Carpets,Sunflower seeds,Fabrics and Textiles

According to the Egyptian Investment Authority statistics, the total Syrian investments in Egypt reached $376.3 millions until 31/12/2009 through 922 companies.

Most important investment sectors: weaving and textiles, food, chemical, service, agricultural, tourism and financing industries.

Ranked among the countries investing in Egypt, Syria is not among the first ten countries investing in Egypt, but it comes within the first Arab states.

Egyptian investments in Syria reached $44.1 millions, investment costs until the end of 2008 focused in 7 projects according to the Syrian Investment Authority statistics.

Economic and Technical Cooperation:

Most important cooperation fields:

Extending natural gas pipelines between the two countries within the Arab Gas Project which also encompasses Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey through a set of pipelines in those countries.

Exporting Syrian wheat (400,000 tons) in return for importing Egyptian rice (150,000 tons) within the terms of the equal transaction (it was agreed to be abrogated). A number of Egyptian companies implement numerous services in Syria: in the field of oil services, the Egyptian Company Enppi and the Egyptian excavation company implement a number of infrastructure projects. The Egyptian Gama Company implements electric dynamo manufacturing project in the free-zone in the city of Deraa. Furthermore, the Sabbour Engineering Consultants Group launched a branch in Syria to extend engineering consultations to the Syrian companies working in contracting and construction works.

Contractual Framework

- Economic Cooperation Agreement 13.12.1990

- The avoidance of double taxation 19-07 -1991

- Trade agreement 19-07 -1991

- Protocol for coordination and cooperation between the ministries of agriculture in both countries 19/7/1991

- Program for cooperation in the field of quarantine and animal health 02/10/1992

- Implementation arrangements for the Great Arab Free Trade 01/01/1997

- Protocol to encourage investment between the two countries 28/5/1997

- Memorandum of understanding for cooperation between the two fairs authorities in February 2002

- Memorandum of Understanding for the exchange of trade information between contact points in the two countries in February 2002

- Agreement for cooperation between the two bodies for investment in 23/12/2003

- Protocol of Cooperation between the Ministries of Economies 23/12/2003

- Protocol on the establishment of joint chamber of commerce between the federal chambers of commerce in both countries 23/12/2003

- Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of WTO agreements between the Ministry of Economy and Commerce in the two countries in March 2006

- Cooperation Agreement between the Chamber of Commerce in Cairo and Damascus Chamber of Commerce

 

Cultural Relations

Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Culture and its Executive program organize bilateral relations. The Agreement states offering Egyptian students 25 scholarships at the various Syrian universities, further to 40 places at the same universities. There is a semi-permanent Egyptian partnership in the cultural activities held in Syria such as the Film and Theatre festivals and the Book Fairs as well. Furthermore, Syria participates in a number of activities and festivals held in Egypt.


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