09 December 2022 10:19 AM

Egypt and Sudan

Wednesday، 22 November 2017 12:00 AM

Relations between Egypt and Sudan are historical and deeply-rooted owing  namely to the existence of the River Nile  which nourishes life in both countries being the foundation stone for many common projects. Both peoples have been engaged together by marriage relations so that the vast majority of Aswan people have Sudanese origins. 

Although Sudan is a geographical extension of Egypt, it has been officially associated with Egypt since the armies of Muhammad Ali had entered Sudan in 1820 to be ever since one state. Occupation forces failed to  break the Egyptian-Sudanese  bonds despite their continuous endeavors.

.After the July revolution in 1952, and the adoption of a policy that promotes liberation value and self-determination right  for all peoples, Sudan attained its   right in independence in 1956. 

Since then, the political relations between the two countries have always been stable. Egypt has always been keen on preserving the stability and security of Sudan being directly linked to Egypt’s own national security . Although Sudan  politically witnessed several political repercussions upon top of which was  the change of ruling systems  and the south  and Darfur crises, Egypt was keen to deal positively with them so as not to negatively affect its security and stability.

After the June 30 revolution, the Egyptian policy has been keen to establish relations of privacy  and  deep understanding with Sudan, developing joint economic relations and making a quantum leap compatible with the  aspirations of the two peoples.

The two countries are keen to strengthen their relations in the various fields. Sudan is the only country having  a consulate in the province of Aswan, which indicates the growing rate  of trade. The consulate's role is not limited to  trade and economic relations, but extends to include other fields.

Political Relations

 Egyptian-Sudanese relations are historically characterized by strong and deep bonds far beyond politics.  Egypt is keen to establish relations that promote cooperation in all fields having common goals and sharing the same destiny.

 On November 10, 2017, the Joint Permanent Technical Commission for Nile Water between Egypt and Sudan concluded its first 5-day meeting at the 57th session, which was inaugurated by Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation Dr. Mohamed Abdel Aati in Cairo on Sunday 5 November 2017.

 It was agreed during the meeting on the preparation of a memorandum of understanding regarding the completion of studies on the desert encroachment over the Nile and the preparation of training courses for technical cadres of the Egyptian and Sudanese sides in various fields such as water measurement, GIS, remote sensing, international law, water diplomacy and active participation in conferences and forums on managing transboundary water resources.

 It was also agreed on the continuity of the Commission to update and develop the database by taking advantage of international  programs that have an international reputation in this regard, within the context of the available historical data and establishing an information center at the headquarters of the Commission in Khartoum to include GIS units, remote sensing, and databases. The two sides agreed to convene the next meeting of the Commission in Khartoum in March 2018.

 On October 2nd, 2016,  Sisi and Basheer headed the Joint Higher Committee, Egypt hosted the work of the Joint Higher Committee, which started its work from 2/10 to 5/10/2016. The Committee held its first session at the Presidential level after it had been held at the Ministerial  level over the past years. The Higher Committee between Egypt and Sudan is comprised from a number of sectoral committees: political, security and consular sectors headed by the ministers of foreign affairs and the military sector headed by the ministers of defense and the economic and financial sector headed by minister of trade and industry and Sudanese minister of finance,  transport, education and culture Sector headed by the Ministers of Higher Education and the Services Sector, headed by the ministers of health, agriculture, water resources and Irrigation headed by the ministers of agriculture.

 The meeting of the Higher Committee this year coincides with Egypt's celebrations of the victorious October war. It reflects the keenness of the two sides to develop and consolidate the common interests and bilateral relations of the peoples of the Nile Valley through promoting trade relations and land linkage. The meetings were concurrent with the trial operation of the port of Arqin on September 29, 2016, which is expected to lead to a significant increase in the volume of trade exchange between the two countries, and is considered an important addition in the framework of completing the interconnection project between African countries, "Alexandria-Cape Town," meant to enhance the smooth flow of goods from Egypt to Sudan, Ethiopia and other parts of the Continent.  In addition, these developments enhance the efforts of the trilateral cooperation between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia, which was agreed upon between the leaders of the three countries in February 2016 in Sharm el-Sheikh on the sidelines of the Investment Forum in Africa.

 On September 20, 2016, the technical delegations of Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia finally signed contracts of technical studies of the Ethiopian Renaissance  Dam with the two French consultants and the English Legal Office in a ceremony held at the Salam Rotana Hotel in Khartoum, Sudan.

 

 On January 21st, 2016, the Norwegian Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan and his accompanying delegation visited Egypt to discuss the situation in Sudan and South Sudan as Norway is one of the Troika countries that sponsored the comprehensive peace agreement. He was received by Assistant Foreign Minister for Neighboring Countries Affairs, ambassador Osama Al-Majdoub. The meeting discussed the negative effects of the sanctions imposed on Sudan, represented on the deterioration  of economic situation as the public debt hit 50 billion dollars, and the negative effect on the  Sudanese society as a whole.

 On April 17, 2014, Egypt and Sudan signed at the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Khartoum, the final record of the border crossings agreement between the two countries. A clear timetable and roadmap have been agreed upon to implement the operation of border crossings, which the Egyptian ambassador described as not only operating for trade and individuals, but also for new communities to be established on these borders.

 On September 22nd, 2014, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met with his Sudanese counterpart Ali Karti in New York on the sidelines of his participation in the UN General Assembly. Shoukry affirmed Egypt's keenness to pursue efforts to launch the national dialogue in Sudan and follow up contacts made by the African Union mediator "Mbeki" with the opposition, which is reluctant to participate in the dialogue to encourage it otherwise. He expressed Egypt's welcome for every effort aimed at achieving national consensus in Sudan and supporting its safety and stability. The two ministers agreed to continue consultations on regional issues of mutual concern.

 With regard to the major political issues and transformations witnessed by Sudan lately, the Egyptian stance was as follows:

First: Egypt's stance towards the southern crisis:

Sudan entered a new phase in its history by signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on Southern Sudan in Nairobi on January 9, 2005, known as the "Naivasha" Agreement. The peace agreement fixed a transitional period of six years, ending with a referendum on self determination for South Sudan in 2011.

Egypt pursued its serious efforts to achieve the unity of Sudan, while working on the full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on the South trying to solve the problems that impede its application. Egypt endeavoured to achieve the Sudanese consensus, namely, to provide an opportunity for voluntary unity or peaceful separation, and to work during the transitional period up to the 2011 on achieving unity.

The Republic of South Sudan officially declared independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011, following a referendum under international supervision in January 2011.

Second: Egypt's position on the Darfur issue:

The Darfur crisis in western Sudan broke out in 2003, a crisis with ethnic and tribal roots which escalated rapidly in the following years. Several international resolutions were passed, the last of which was Resolution 1593, which referred the Darfur issue to the International Criminal Court.

Egypt considers that Darfur is part of Sudan and recognizes all as one people of the region, regardless of  those  from Arab origin or African one, as such classifications rendered the conflict seem as Arab-African one. Egypt believed that the Darfur conflict is a cross-cutting and necessitates political, developmental, social and humanitarian solutions.

 

The Egyptian leaderships expressed their readiness to coordinate and cooperate with all parties on regional and international levels to contribute to solving the Darfur problem and to preserve the unity of Sudan.

 Egypt supported the efforts of the Arab League and the African Union to settle the issue on one hand, and cooperated with the Sudanese government to resolve it on the other hand. After the escalation of the issue and Sudan indulging in great complications, Egypt tried to present compromise to spare Sudan the confrontation with the international community, which Egypt believes will have serious consequences. This happened many times, when Sudan rejected Resolution 1706 considering it a direct intervention in its affairs, and in other stances concerning the   international sanctions imposed on Sudan and the need to give a chance for a peaceful settlement.

 

 Egypt, also, opened its doors to the leaders of the armed movements in Darfur, whom it called for more than one meeting, the last of which was the Cairo meeting on July 14, 2009 to unite  the 7 Darfurian factions as an urgent necessity to enter into negotiations with the Sudanese government in a try to resolve the crisis in Darfur.

 Egypt presented a triple roadmap to resolve the crisis. First: unifying the armed movements in the region. Second: working on attaining reconciliation of Sudan and Chad. Third: working to better  humanitarian and security situations in the region.

 

 Meanwhile, Egypt sought to communicate with the Sudanese government since the beginning of the crisis to convince it to avoid escalation against the international community. Egypt tried to convince the Sudanese government as well to meet international demands to improve the situation in Darfur.

 The Egyptian stance was not limited to political and diplomatic moves, but extended to humanitarian and medical assistance. The official , popular medical and humanitarian convoys have not ceased from the beginning of the crisis. There is a permanent Egyptian medical presence in Darfur from the Egyptian armed forces, as well as civil society organizations, in addition to the military presence, as peacekeeping forces.

 On August 2nd, 2020, The Arab Republic of Egypt, in a statement issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, expressed its solidarity with the sisterly Republic of Sudan after the collapse of the Butt Dam in the Blue Nile State in the southeast of the country, resulting in the destruction of hundreds of homes.

 The statement confirmed that Egypt stands side by side with the brothers in Sudan to face the repercussions of this incident, on the basis of the brotherly ties that bind the people of the Nile Valley, the historical relations and the unity of path and destiny that unite the two countries.

 

 

Mutual Visits

On 2/6/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi arrived in Khartoum to attend the inauguration ceremony of Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir for a new presidential term. The visit also reflects the importance of the two countries' relations to their peoples who are looking forward to promoting these relations at all levels.

On 2/5/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met in Cairo with visiting Sudanese Foreign Minister Ali Karti. Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry attended the meeting. Karti handed over an invitation to Sisi to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Omar al Bashir.

On 25/4/2015, Chief of staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces Lt. General Mahmoud Hegazi held a meeting with Sudanese counterpart Lt. General Mustafa Osman Obeid. Obeid arrived in Cairo on top of a high-level military delegation to discuss means of promoting joint military cooperation along with the recent developments at the regional level.

27/3/2015: President Sisi received Sudanese President Omar al Bashir to attend the 26th Arab Summit in Sharm el Sheikh.

23/3/2015: President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi left for Khartoum on a one-day visit to Sudan for talks with his Sudanese counterpart Omar al Bashir.

16/3/2015: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met with a high-level delegation grouping 20 editors-in-chief and media personnel representing Sudanese newspapers. The visit comes within the framework of enhancing cooperation between mass media in the two countries. Shoukry highlighted the deeply-rooted and strategic relations between the two nations.

13/3/2015: Sudanese President Omar al Bashir visited Egypt to attend the Egyptian Economic Development Conference in Sharm el Sheikh.

3/3/2015: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Sudan to attend the conference of the ministers of foreign affairs and water resources of Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia. Shoukry underlined Egypt's keenness on exerting efforts and seizing available opportunities to communicate and cooperate with the three eastern Nile Basin countries for the best interest of all nations in the region.

27/12/2014: Head of the Nile Water Sector Ahmed Bahaa Eldin visited Sudan to attend the meetings of the Egyptian-Sudanese Technical Authority for the Nile Water. Bahaa Eldin delivered a speech on behalf of Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation Hossam Maghazi.

2/12/2014: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Sudan to attend the 2nd Arab-Russian Forum. On the sideline of the forum Shoukry held talks with his Sudanese counterpart Ali Karti over boosting bilateral relations and increasing trade exchange.

20/11/2014: President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi met with a Sudanese media delegation under Sudanese Minister of State for Information Yasser Ibrahim. President Sisi shed light during the meeting on Egypt-Sudan relations and the Common factors that bind the two peoples. The president reviewed with the delegation the political developments in Egypt during the past two years which emanated from the desire of people for change. The Sudanese minister conveyed to President Sisi the greetings of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, pointing out that the Sudanese president expressed satisfaction over his recent visit to Egypt and the talks he had with President Sisi, who stressed the importance of closing Arab and African ranks. The Sudanese delegation expressed Sudan's support for the desire of Egypt' people to choose their leadership.

11/11/2014: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry received with his Sudanese counterpart Ali Karti to discuss bilateral relations. The top diplomats also talked about the situation in Libya, with Karti posting Shoukry on the outcome of his latest visit to Tripoli. Shoukry pointed to Egyptian efforts in support of Libyan state institutions. Egypt is keen on Libya's security, stability and unity, Shoukry told Karti. Shoukry also stressed the importance of activating Libya's neighbor initiative, ratified during a meeting of foreign ministers of Libya's neighboring states in Cairo in August.

18/10/2014: President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi held a meeting with his Sudanese counterpart Omar al-Bashir at the Presidential Palace. Sisi welcomed Bashir and his accompanying delegation, stressing that responsibility rests with the two governments to realize their peoples' hopes and improve their conditions at all levels, particularly at the economic and development ones. The President focused on the brotherly relations between Egypt and Sudan, and the importance of investing them. For his part, the Sudanese president praised Egypt's vital stances on the Arab and African issues, noting that these stances represented a cornerstone in the Arab region in peace and war. The Sudanese president called for upgrading the level of the higher joint committee to presidential level to ensure regular session and success in achieving the desired results; a stance welcomed by Sisi.

10/10/2014: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukri met with his Sudanese counterpart Ali Karti in Cairo. The meeting took up boosting bilateral relations and the latest regional and international developments.

27/6/2014: President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi visited Sudan.Sisi said that the coming stage will see more cooperation between Egypt and Sudan. During a joint press conference, Sisi said that Egypt is considering Sudan as its strategic depth, hoping that his visit will help boost bilateral relations. For his part, Bashir welcomed Sisi's visit to Sudan, stressing that views are identical concerning the necessity of working together to contain conflicts in the region.

8/6/2014: A high level Sudanese delegation attended the inauguration ceremony of Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi as Egypt's President.

13/3/2014: Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmy met with his Sudanese counterpart Ali Ahmed Karti on the sidelines of the 20th session of the executive council of the Sahel-Sahara Community (Cen-Sad) in Khartoum. The two top diplomats agreed that Karti will visit Cairo with the planned convention of a joint border committee on March 17, 2014 to follow up the operation of a road linking the two countries. The meeting also took up the situation in the Sahel-Sahara region and efforts to restore peace and stability in South Sudan. For his part, Karti stressed the need to restore Egypt's membership at the African Union as soon as possible. They also tackled the Nile water file.

3/3/2014: Egypt and Sudan have reiterated their full keenness to boost bilateral relations in all fields to a level which lives up to the expectations of the two peoples. This came in a joint statement issued following talks between Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmy and his Sudanese counterpart Ali Ahmed Karti in Cairo. The two ministers stressed, at the end of their consultations, the same destiny and goals of the two Nile peoples. They underlined commitment to exerting every effort to promote cooperation in all economic, trade and cultural fields in a way that achieves the expectations of the Egyptian and Sudanese peoples.

 

 

Economic Relations

The Egyptian-Sudanese trade relations have witnessed remarkable growth recently, especially in light of the membership of the two countries in the Greater Arab Free Trade Area and the COMESA .

On 30/4/2015 Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahalb inaugurated the port of Qustal /Ashqit between Egypt and Sudan. The opening ceremony was attended by ministers of Planning, Industry, Local Development, Supply, International Cooperation, Fayza Abul-Naga, Adviser to the President of the Republic, Governor of Aswan, and a number of military leaders and the chairman of the General Assembly For the port, minister of Transport, and a number of state officials and public figures; and the Sudanese side included the first Vice President of Sudan, and minister of Roads and Bridges, and the governor of the northern state. The port is considered to be the most important Egyptian gateway to Africa, where it will contribute to a significant leap in trade and investment between Egypt on the one hand and Sudan and the African continent on the other hand through the development of exports and imports of goods and livestock. Two river ports were built on the east and west of Lake Nasser, and a 35 km long road was constructed, from the east of the lake to the port gate .

The trial operation of the port commenced on 27/8/2014. The total revenues of the port since its operation until 31/3/2015 amounted to LE 5.5 million .

The volume of exports through the port during this period reached about $ 4,620 million, while the imports amounted to $ 8.180 million .

Trade Balance

The trade balance is in the range of half a billion dollars.  Egyptian exports to Sudan include furniture, food commodities, plastics, petroleum products , medicines and copper products. Egyptian imports from Sudan include raw cotton, sesame and oilseeds .

On 5/10/2016, the two presidents signed a comprehensive strategic partnership document between Egypt and Sudan, and the two presidents signed the final record in the first session of the joint high committee between the two countries. Subsequently, the two presidents witnessed the signing of a number of joint cooperation agreements between Egypt and

Sudan by the officials to enhance bilateral cooperation in many fields :

The signing of the minutes of the political and security affairs meetings of the Egyptian-Sudanese High Joint Committee, which was signed by Foreign Minister Sameh Shukri and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour . 

The  Signing of a cooperation agreement in the field of higher education and Scientific Research, signed by the Egyptian Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research Dr. Ashraf Al-Shehhi, and the Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour .

The Signing of a memorandum of understanding in the field of agriculture and the minutes of meetings of the agriculture, water resources and irrigation sector.They were signed by Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Issam Fayed, and Minister of Agriculture and Forestry , Ibrahim Adam from the Sudanese side . The signing of the executive program for cooperation in the field of health for the years 2017 to 2019 and the meetings ‘minutes of the service sector . They were signed by Minister of Health and Population Dr. Ahmed Imad El - Din and Sudanese Minister of Communications and Information Technology Tahani Attieh ,.

The Signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of sport and youth for the years 2017 to 2019.It was signed by the Minister of Youth and Sports Khaled Abdul Aziz and the Sudanese foreign minister, Ibrahim Ghandour . 

The  Signing of an executive program for cultural cooperation for the years 2017 to 2019 signed by the Egyptian Minister of Culture Dr. Hilmi Al - Namnam and Sudanese  Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour .

 The Signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of tourism for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Minister of Tourism Yahya Rashid , and the Sudanese  Minister of Communications and Information Technology Tahani Attieh .

The signing of the  Executive program for cooperation in the field of education for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Dr. Minister of Education and Technical Education, and Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour .

The signing of the executive program and memorandum of understanding in the field of trade and endorsing the minutes of meetings of the economic and financial sector between the two countries, signed by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, Tareq Qabeel and the Sudanese side by Ambassador Salah Said .

 

The signing of the minutes of the meetings of the transport sector between the two countries, signed by Minister of Transport Dr. Jalal al-Said and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour .

The signing of the minutes of the political and security affairs meetings of the Egyptian-Sudanese High Joint Committee, which was signed by Foreign Minister Sameh Shukri and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour .

The Signing of a cooperation agreement in the field of higher education and the minutes of meetings of the Higher Education and Scientific Research Sector, signed by Dr. Ashraf Al-Shehhi, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, from the Egyptian side and Ibrahim Ghandour from the Sudanese side .

The Signing of a memorandum of understanding in the field of agriculture and the minutes of the meetings of the agriculture, water resources and irrigation sector signed by Issam Fayed, Minister of Agriculture and Land

Reclamation, and the Sudanese side Dr. Ibrahim Adam Minister of Agriculture and Forestry .

- The signing of the executive program for cooperation in the field of health for the years 2017 to 2019 and the minutes of meetings of the service sector, signed by Dr. Ahmed Imad El-Din, Minister of Health and Population, and Dr. Tahani Attieh, Minister of Communications and Information Technology from the Sudanese side .

The signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of sport and another program for cooperation in the field of youth for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by the Minister of Youth and Sports Khaled Abdul Aziz and Ibrahim Grandour from the Sudanese side .

- The signing of an executive program for cultural cooperation for the years 2017 to 2019 signed by the Egyptian side Dr. Hilmi Al-Noman, Minister of Culture and Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour .

- The Signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of tourism for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Yahya Rashid, Minister of Tourism , and Dr. Tahani Attieh, Minister of Communications and Information Technology from the Sudanese side 

-The signing of the Executive program for cooperation in the field of education for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Minister of Education and Technical Education Dr. al Hilaly Al Sherbeeny, and Sudanese Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour .

-The signing of the Executive program and memorandum of understanding in the field of trade and the meetings’minutes of the economic and financial sector, signed by the Minister of Trade and Industry, Tareq Qabeel and the Sudanese Ambassador Salah Sa’eed .

 

-The Signing of the meetings’ minutes of the transport sector between the two countries, signed by Minister of Transport, Jalal al-Sa’eed and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour .

 

  Egyptian-Sudanese economic and investment relations have seen great progress over the past few years as the two countries are members in the Greater Arab Free Trade Area and the COMESA.

By the end of 2013, the volume of trade exchange between the two countries reached about $ 839 million, compared to about $ 772 million in 2012. The Sudanese investments in Egypt reached about $ 97 million represented in 315 Sudanese companies.

The number of Egyptian projects in Sudan during the period from 2000 to 2013 is about 229 projects with a capital amounted to about $ 10.8 billion US.

The most important joint projects in transport and roads:

• The coastal road between Egypt and Sudan, 280 kilometers

• Qustul-Wadi Halfa road, 34 km inside the Egyptian border and 27 kilometers inside the border of Sudan

• Aswan- Wadi Halfa- Dongola road

• Developing and restructuring of the railway lines to facilitate the movement of goods and people

• Extending the electrical grid to the north of Sudan

• Developing the irrigation and drainage network in Sudan

The most important economic integration charters:

On October 12, 1982, the former heads of state, Hosni Mubarak and Jaafar Nimeiri, signed a charter for integration to consolidate bilateral relations especially in the economic and financial fields in order to establish a comprehensive economic unity.

On February 2, 1974, the two former heads of state, Anwar Sadat and Jaafar Nimeiri, signed a protocol of political and economic integration to legalize the bilateral relations.

The most important trade agreements:

• COMESA Agreement

• Agreement to facilitate and develop the trade exchange and its executive program for the establishment of the Greater Arab free trade zone

• Protocol for trade exchange between the two countries (March 1993)

• In November 2003, the two countries signed an agreement under which the Egyptian side imports frozen Sudanese meat

• Agreement to establish a free trade zone in "Juba"

Contractual framework

• Reciprocal exemption agreement with respect to taxes imposed on aviation facilities, July 26, 1961

• Air transport agreement March, 25, 1962

• Trade agreement, January 20, 1965

• Trade agreement, customs and transportation, January 30, 1965

• Agreement establishing regular shipping line between the High Dam and Halfa Valley, January 30, 1965

• Media agreement, November 19, 1967

• Agreement on the settlement of compensation owed to the nationals, June 1, 1966

• Protocol on the implementation of construction projects, August 31, 1969

• Agreement to achieve economic integration, August 31, 1969

• Protocol amending the Agreement of Trade and Payment, August 31, 1969

• Technical cooperation agreement, August 31, 1969

• Protocol to an agreement to integrate economic and technical cooperation, August 31, 1969

• Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of livestock, October 6, 1969

• A cultural cooperation agreement, November 15, 1969

• Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of agriculture, January 7, 1970

• Protocol on the implementation of construction projects, August 31, 1969

• Protocol amending the Agreement of Trade and Payment, August 31, 1969

• Technical cooperation agreement, August 31, 1969

• Protocol to an agreement to integrate economic and technical cooperation, August 31, 1969

• Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of livestock, October 6, 1969

• A cultural cooperation agreement, November 15, 1969

• Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of agriculture, January 7, 1970

• Agreement to strengthen cooperation in the Film industry, January 29, 1970

• Protocol amending trade agreement, February 17, 1972

• Tourist agreement, June 16, 1975

• Protocol for establishing the Egyptian-Sudanese company for irrigation projects and construction, July 15, 1975

• Convention on the establishment of an Egyptian-Sudanese joint navigation river (the Nile Valley), July 15, 1975

• Agreement for Social Security, September 21, 1975

• Protocol on Cooperation of Science, November 18, 1975

• Joint defense agreement, July 15, 1976

• Agreement Establishing the Sudanese-Egyptian Partnership for Mining, November 22, 1976

• Protocol to amend the trade agreement and payment in 1/30/1965, January 12, 1977

• Agreement establishing the Common Fund to finance the studies of technical and economic feasibility of industrial integration projects, May 28, 1977

• Agreement on navigation, May 28, 1977

• Agreement on the health and medical cooperation, May 28, 1977

• Agreement on allowing dual nationality, May 28, 1977

• Agreement Establishing the Sudanese-Egyptian Company for Investment, May 28, 1977

• Agreement on the Settlement of compensation due from the Egyptian interests, which were nationalized in the Republic of Sudan, November 13, 1977

• Protocol to amend certain provisions of the cooperation agreement, June 29, 1978

• Charter of the integration between Egypt and Sudan, October 12, 1982

• Agreement amending some provisions of the Convention on Social Security, October 25, 1984

• Trade protocol for 1991, January 14, 1991

• Cooperation Protocol healthy, June 15, 1998

• Protocol on cooperation in the field of transport, July 16, 1998

• Memorandum of Understanding on Industrial Cooperation, September 2, 2000

• Agreement on cooperation in the field of youth and sports, September 2, 2000

• Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of livestock September 2, 2000

• Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of Agriculture September 2, 2000

• Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the cultural field, September 2, 2000

• An executive program for cooperation in tourism 2002 - 2003 September 2, 2000

• Agreement to encourage and protect mutual investment, July 8 20 001

• Technical cooperation agreement in the field of oil, July 8, 2001

• Agreement establishing the joint supreme committee, July 8, 2001

• Executive program in the field of agricultural research, livestock, July 8, 2001

• Cooperation Protocol between the Ministries of Economy of the two countries, July 8, 2001

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of media cooperation, July 8, 2001

• Cooperation agreement in the industrial field between the two countries, July 8, 2001

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of Education, July 8, 2001

• Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in investment between the two countries, July 8, 2001

• Agreement on mutual administrative cooperation for the prevention of waste customs, search and control, July 8, 2001

• Quarantine agreement, July 8, 2001

• Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of electricity, July 8, 2001

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of Higher Education and Scientific Research, July 8, 2001

• An executive program for training in the fields of agriculture, livestock, July 8, 2001

• Maritime transport agreement, July 29, 2002

• Agreement in the field of land transport of passengers and goods, July 29, 2002

• Agreement to avoid double taxation and prevent tax evasion, July 29, 2002

• Agreement in the field of security, care and social development, July 29, 2002

• Agreement on the exchange of labor, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of Fisheries, July 29, 2002

• Executive program special health requirements of veterinary, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of wealth exports, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of workforce, July 29, 2002

• Executive program in the field of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of information, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of Understanding on insurance and reinsurance, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of housing, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of roads, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding for joint cooperation in the field of crisis management and emergency events and disasters, July 29, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of administrative development, August 5, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of technical cooperation for the protection of the environment, October 24, 2002

• Memorandum of understanding between the news agencies, July 20, 2003

• Memorandum of Understanding between the training bodies of river transport, July 20, 2003

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of railway between the Ministries of Transport of the two countries for 2004, July 20, 2003

• Executive Program of Action between the Ministries of Health, July 20, 2003

• Memorandum of understanding to establish a Committee on Industrial Cooperation, July 20, 2003

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of youth and sport for two years 2002 – 2004, July 20, 2003

• Executive program in the field of Education, July 20, 2003

• Executive program on the return of the Egyptian educational mission for Sudan, July 20, 2003

• Protocol of technical cooperation in the field of electricity between the Ministries of Electricity, July 20, 2003

• Memorandum of understanding on cooperation in the areas of housing and public facilities, July 20, 2003

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of media cooperation, July 19, 2003

• Memorandum of understanding on the veterinary health requirements for the export of meat from Sudan to Egypt, August 2, 2003

• Agreement freedom of movement and residence, work and own property, April 4, 2004

• Agreement on cooperation in the field of endowments, November 13, 2004

• Cooperation agreement between the Egyptian Dar Al-Fatwa and the Ministry of Guidance and Endowment of Sudan, November 13, 2005

• Memorandum of understanding between the Ministries of International Cooperation of the two countries, November 13, 2005

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of health insurance, November 13, 2005

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of Telecommunications, November 13, 2005

• Memorandum of understanding in the field of customs, November 13, 2005

• An executive program for tourism cooperation agreement for the years 2006 – 2008, November 13, 2005

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of population for the years 2006 – 2008, November 13, 2005

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of youth and sport for the years 2006 – 2007, November 13, 2005

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of higher education and scientific research for the years 2006 – 2007, November 13, 2005

• Extension of the Executive Program for Technical Cooperation between the Ministries of Manpower, November 13, 2005

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of body protection for the years 2007 – 2009, April 19, 2007

• An executive program for cooperation in the field of training between the secretariats of the Council of Ministers of the two countries, April 19, 2007

• Memorandum of Understanding on Technical Cooperation between the General Authority for Mineral Resources in Egypt and the General Authority for Geological Research in the Sudan, April 19, 2007

• An executive program for scientific and technological cooperation, April 19, 2007

• Executive Program in the field of education, April 19, 2007

• Executive program of the Convention on Cooperation in the field of Welfare and Social Development for the years 2006 – 2007, April 19, 2007

• Executive program for cooperation in the field of administrative development for the years 2007 – 2008, April 19, 2007

• Memorandum of understanding for cooperation in the field of harbors, April 19, 2007

• Executive work program between the Ministries of Health of the two countries, April 19, 2007

• An executive program for cultural cooperation for the years 2007 – 2009, April 19, 2007.

GERD Meetings:

 

On 28/1/2020:

 

The foreign and water ministers of Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia began the final round of talks on rules for operating and filling the contentious Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on Tuesday 28/1/2020 in Washington DC, where they discussed technical and legal draft agreements prepared last week by experts in Khartoum.

US officials and representatives from the World Bank attended the meeting.

The ministers of the three countries held earlier meetings in Washington between January 13 and 15  to discuss the results of four rounds of negotiations held under the auspices of the World Bank and the United States.

The last round of talks in Addis Ababa in early January failed to reach a final agreement on filling and operating the new dam in Ethiopia, construction of which began along the Blue Nile in 2011, ahead of an earlier January 15 deadline. Egypt’s government blamed Ethiopia’s “intransigence” on the failure of the talks and has denied that Egypt was under pressure to waive some of its demands in the last round of Renaissance Dam negotiations held in Washington, DC.

Despite the failure of earlier talks, Mohamed al-Sebaei, the official spokesperson of Egypt’s Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, said in a statement on January 21 that the three countries had agreed during the Washington meeting earlier this January to reach a comprehensive and sustainable agreement based on cooperation from all parties.

However, legal and technical experts from Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan were set to hammer out the details of this final draft agreement during last week’s Khartoum meetings.

Al-Sebaei said Monday that the three countries agreed on six items during the last Washington meeting, which include filling the dam in stages and in an “adaptive and cooperative” manner, taking into account the hydrological conditions of the Blue Nile and the potential impact of filling the new dam on downstream countries, and filling rules during the rainy season, which generally falls from July to August and September, depending on conditions.

Sebaei explained the parties also agreed that the first filling phase of the dam aim to reach 595 meters above sea level, which will be used to generate electricity – a key issue for Ethiopia – while providing appropriate mitigation measures for Egypt and Sudan in the event of severe drought during the filling period.

Subsequent stages of filling will be determined according to a mechanism to be agreed on later, he added.

Sources concerned with the GERD said that the last round of negotiations this week is scheduled to settle various disagreements over nine years of negotiations, adding that the US has achieved  “remarkable success” as a mediator.

The last round of negotiations in Washington aimed to make sure that the dam’s role is limited to meeting Ethiopia’s electricity needs, the sources said, referencing what same have called Ethiopia’s push toward certain regional political gains “at the expense of Egypt and Sudan.”

Ethiopia was expected to make concessions in return for Egyptian concessions, which the sources claim would not be related to the so-called water crisis.

Egypt, which relies considerably on fresh water from the Nile, has voiced concerns that the GERD would negatively impact the country’s water supply in light of the country’s growing population. Ethiopia, on the other hand, has stressed the importance of the project to bolstering the economy in the country, where more than half of the population currently lives without access to electricity, according to a report from AFP.

 

 

 

Military Cooperation

On 5/2/2014, Sudanese Defense Minister Abdel Rahim Mohamed Hussein paid a visit to Egypt during which he met with the then Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Minister of Defense and Military Production Abdel Fattah El Sisi . The two ministers agreed to establish a joint force to secure the border between the two countries and to hold joint training courses, beside cooperating in the fields of armament, exchange of military expertise and supporting security cooperation.

On 24/8/2014, Defense Minister General Sedqi Sobhi headed a delegation to visit Sudan where he met with a number of Sudanese military officials. The two sides discussed means of boosting cooperation between the two countries, benefiting from Egyptian expertise in the fields of training and arming and discussed cooperation in the preservation of common borders.

 

Cultural Relations

The cultural relations between the two countries have  been influenced  greatly  through   universities that helped in deepening these relations, via the exchange of visits between Egyptian and Sudanese university professors targeting the  exchange  of experiences and research between universities in both countries. also,   university students have been privileged  to visit other universities in both countries  and to get  scholarships to complete postgraduate studies.

Al-Azhar is interested in studying the cultural, religious and educational conditions in Sudan to define its needs in these fields.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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