03 February 2023 02:34 AM

Egypt and Jordan

Thursday، 02 November 2017 12:00 AM

Location

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is located in northwestern Asia, specifically in the rocky desert region at the north of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) on the south and southeast. It shares borders with Palestine to the west, Iraq to the east, and Syria to the north. Jordan overlooks the Red Sea with a border length of about 26 km from the southwest. It is so-called due to the passage of the Jordan River at its western borders.

Capital

Amman

Official Currency

  Jordanian Dinar (JOD)

Official Language

Arabic. The first foreign language is English.

The Egyptian-Jordanian relationships are characterized by consensus visions and goals. The two countries are linked by close and extended economic ties that contributed to the development of bilateral, Arab and regional cooperation. The bilateral relationships are deeply rooted in the history since ancient times. This has been clearly demonstrated by the archaeological discoveries and historical evidence since Egypt’s Pharaonic Era and Jordan’s Nabataeans. In the records of Pharaonic Tell El-Amarna, Jordan was mentioned between the years 1375-1358 BC; i.e. during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten.


In the modern era, Egyptian-Jordanian diplomatic relationships have been established since Jordan's independence in 1946. The two countries are founding members of the Arab League (AL), the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and several other international organizations.

Political Relationships

Egyptian-Jordanian Relationships during Era of Late President Gamal Abdel Nasser.

In the last days of Gamal Abdel Nasser’s rule, the official Egyptian regime mediated between Jordan and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) after the events of September 1970. Egypt played a positive role in calling for an Arab Summit that was able to cease this bitter clash.

The two countries have entered into several political and military agreements; salient of which was the Joint Defense Agreement signed on May 30, 1967, which placed the forces of the two countries under a joint command. The Egyptian Lieutenant-General Abdel Moneim Riad was the commander of the joint command center in Amman, the Jordanian capital, and was appointed a commander-in-chief of the Jordanian front when the 1967 war broke out. Jordan and Egypt took responsibility for managing some territories of Palestine after the Nakba (catastrophe).

The beginning of 1964 augured well for Egypt, when the High Dam was inaugurated, and the era of holding summits began at the invitation of the late President Gamal Abdel Nasser, where the late King Hussein was the first to attend. The inauguration of the High Dam in 1964 coincided with the restoration of Arab relations. Egypt resumed its relations with Jordan and KSA as a very significant step in Arab solidarity. Egypt took an effective control in 1964 and this year has been considered "the year of achievements for Egypt."

Official relationships between the two governments were marred by some media tension, especially in the sixties. The Jordanian official position was closer to the West, while its Egyptian counterpart during the era of President Gamal Abdel Nasser leaned towards the Eastern bloc and the socialist and nationalist ideologies.

Egyptian-Jordanian Relationships during Era of Late President Mohamed Anwar Sadat

Relationships between the two governments were severed after the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979. Nevertheless, they have quickly restored to formulate a joint peace strategy with Israel.

On May 16, 1975, President Sadat visited Jordan, and was received by King Hussein bin Talal of Jordan.

On September 9, 1973, the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian Summit was held in Cairo. It was attended by President Anwar Sadat, Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad and King Hussein of Jordan. Sadat announced that the goal of this summit is to restore Egyptian-Jordanian relationships.

Egyptian-Jordanian Relationships during Era of Late President Mohammed Hosni Mubarak

On April 28, 2006, President Mubarak visited Jordan.
On November 24, 2004, President Mubarak also visited Jordan.
On July 28, 2003, President Mubarak and King Abdullah of Jordan inaugurated in Taba and Aqaba the first phase of the gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan.
On March 14, 1999, President Mubarak visited Jordan and held significant talks with King Abdullah bin Al-Hussein of Jordan on the developments of current issues in the region. Additionally, they discussed ways to support bilateral relations between the two countries. President Mubarak and King Abdullah inaugurated the electrical linkage project between Egypt and Jordan.
On February 8, 1999, President Mubarak visited Jordan to extend condolences on the death of the late King Hussein of Jordan.
In 1989, the region witnessed the establishment of an Arab alliance, called the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), that brought together Egypt, Jordan, North Yemen and Iraq, but it broke up as soon as Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. The stances of the two governments diverged significantly after this invasion and its aftermath. The Extraordinary Arab Summit was held in Cairo a few days later, and each country had aligned itself on a different axis regarding the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent international efforts to liberate it.
On March 18, 1985, President Mubarak visited Jordan, and announced Egypt and Jordan's support for Iraq in its war against Iran. Since then, Jordanian-Egyptian relationships have remained distinct.
On October 9, 1984, President Mubarak visited Jordan and a higher bilateral committee was formed, where a cooperation program was approved. Days after President Mubarak's visit to Jordan, Prince Hassan paid an official visit to Egypt, lasted for four days. On December 1, King Hussein visited Egypt, accompanied by Prime Minister Ahmed Obeidat.
On September 25, 1984, Jordan decided to restore its relationships with Egypt as being the first Arab country to restore relationships with Egypt after being severed by the Arab countries following the 1979 Camp David Accord. President Mubarak expressed his appreciation for Jordan, described the step as courageous, and dispatched his office manager, Osama Al-Baz to Amman.

Current Relationships

Egyptian-Jordanian political relationships are particularly significant; owing to the substantial regional role assumed by the two countries in facing the challenges and dangers daunting the region. The relationship between the two countries is characterized by political consensus in visions and goals.

The two sides greatly cooperate in several fundamental files; topped by the Palestinian Question, where Cairo and Amman are key parties. The two countries are still seeking to resume the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations in accordance with international terms of reference.

 

The governments of Egypt and Jordan have participated in the Middle East peace process. Several summits and meetings were held at the two countries during and post the nineties, to settle the Palestinian Question, such as: Sharm El-Sheikh Summit in 2005. The policy of the two countries is oriented towards the media’s so-called direction “the Arab Axis of Moderation.”

 

In the file of terrorism, the visions of the two countries approve the need to intensify the efforts of the international community and Arab and Islamic countries to take a firm stance against the threat of terrorism, extremism and terrorist organizations. Moreover, this is done in addition to the shared vision on the situation in Syria, and the emphasizing of the two countries on the importance of reaching a comprehensive political solution to the crisis. This would put an end to the human suffering of the Syrian people, preserve the unity and integrity of the Syrian territories, and prevent the spread of violence to other regions.

 

On December 5, 2021, Mohamed Samir, the Egyptian ambassador to Jordan, presented his credentials to His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan. He conveyed the greetings of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi to His Majesty King Abdullah II. During the credential presentation ceremony, Egypt and Jordan mutually expressed self-esteem and appreciation of the distinguished historical and fraternal relationships between the two countries’ leadership, government and people. This also expressed their deep relationships full of friendliness and permanent coordination in various fields. They are also satisfied with the existing level of consultation on various regional and international issues of common concern. This is done in a manner that achieves the interests of the two countries and meets the aspirations of the two brotherly peoples to welfare and prosperity.

 

On November 30, 2021, Sameh Shoukry, Minister of Foreign Affairs, met Ayman Safadi, Jordanian Minister of Foreign Affairs, on the framework of the Sixth Regional Forum of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) and the Third European Union (EU) with the Southern Neighborhood Ministerial Meeting. The two sides discussed the strong relationships between Egypt and Jordan, and ways to further promote bilateral cooperation to achieve the common interests of the two fraternal countries.

 

On November 10, 2021, Prince Al-Hussein bin Abdullah, Crown Prince of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, visited Egypt, and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. During the meeting, they discussed ways to enhance aspects of bilateral cooperation, particularly with regard to cooperation in the fields of tourism, economy, trade exchange and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as issues of combating terrorism and radical ideology. Moreover, the two brotherly countries review their experience in the field of empowering women and youth, and discuss ways to exchange experiences in this regard. In this context, the President praised the participation of His Highness, the Jordanian Crown Prince in several sessions of the World Youth Forum (WYF). His Excellency affirmed Egypt's keenness to strengthen this important forum as it provides an opportunity for Egyptian youth to have dialogue and learn about the state's major projects. The two sides also stressed the importance of uniting and concerting efforts of Arab countries to address the crises in some countries of the region, especially in Libya and Syria, in a framework of respecting their sovereignty and unity and to end the human suffering of their brotherly peoples. They also tackled the ways to enhance cooperation with brotherly Iraq, within the framework of the tripartite cooperation mechanism, especially that this mechanism constitutes an appropriate opportunity to exchange visions on issues and challenges of common concern. They have reaffirmed condemning the failed recent assassination attempt against the Iraqi Prime Minister, and expressed their full support to stabilize the situation in brotherly Iraq, support it in its war against terrorism, and back its political march.

 

On October 4, 2021, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi made a phone call with King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein, Monarch of Jordan, to check on his health as he was infected with the Coronavirus. During the call, the President expressed his sincere wishes for a speedy recovery, and good health and safety for the whole Jordanian royal family. The Jordanian Monarch expressed his deep gratitude and appreciation to President El-Sisi for that generous gesture that reflects the spirit of brotherhood and the depth of relationships between the two countries, wishing Egypt and its people all the best and prosperity.

 

On September 9, 2021, Ayman Safadi, the Jordanian Minister of Foreign Affairs, visited Egypt, and was received by Sameh Shoukry, the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The two sides discussed ways to advance the distinguished bilateral relations between the two brotherly countries, as well as coordination regarding all successive regional developments in light of the consensus of visions between Cairo and Amman.

 

On September 2, 2021, King Abdullah II and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas Abu Mazen visited Egypt, and were received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The tripartite summit discussed coordinated positions and visions on a number of issues related to the Palestinian Question, which represents the actual foundation for the stability of the region and the priority for all Arab peoples. This is done, taking into account the developments that have occurred during the recent period, especially with regard to the peace process and ways to stabilize the truce following the escalation in the Palestinian territories last May. The talks also witnessed a discussion of the latest developments in the Palestinian territories, as well as at the regional and international levels. It reflected the convergence in views among Egypt, Jordan and Palestine on all issues, and also affirmed the firm positions of Egypt and Jordan in supporting the State of Palestine and President Mahmoud Abbas against any moves or actions that would harm the constants of the Palestinian Question. They also tackled all actions and moves that would bring about any unilateral change on the ground that would deny the right of the Palestinian people to obtain their independent state with East Jerusalem as its capital. Hence, it highlighted the importance of concerting all efforts of brothers and partners to work on reviving the peace process and resuming negotiations according to the terms of reference of international legitimacy, taking into account the severe consequences of not solving the Palestinian Question on the security and stability of the whole region.

 

On July 26, 2021, Ayman Safadi, the Jordanian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Expatriate Affairs, visited Egypt and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, in the presence of Sameh Shoukry. The meeting witnessed a review of the overall bilateral relationships between the two countries. They expressed satisfaction with the existing level of coordination between the two sides, and emphasized the importance of strengthening economic relationships and increasing trade exchange to the level of political relations and historical ties between the two brotherly peoples. Furthermore, they boosted bilateral cooperation, discussed ways to develop relations in all fields, and pursued consultation on priority regional issues, in confirmation of the strong relationships between Egypt and Jordan.

 

President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, alongside Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kadhimi of Iraq and King Abdullah II of Jordan, participated in the Tripartite Summit between Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan on June 27, 2021, in Baghdad, as part of the fourth round of the Tripartite Cooperation Mechanism, which was launched in Cairo in March 2019. Furthermore, President El-Sisi met the Jordanian Monarch to discuss means of promoting bilateral relations at all levels, within the framework of the close and fraternal ties between Egypt and Jordan. In addition, the two countries were keen to strengthen their cooperation and to continue to consult extensively on issues of mutual interest.

 

On May 31, 2021, Sameh Shoukry made a phone call with Ayman Safadi. Through that call, Egypt's intensive diplomatic moves to stabilize the ceasefire in the Gaza Strip were addressed, as were the two Ministers' ideas on the reconstruction of Gaza. The two Ministers agreed to continue liaison between the two countries in this regard in coordination with the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). The Ministers stressed the importance of continuing the efforts of the two countries to support the PNA and to improve the living conditions of Palestinian citizens in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in cooperation with international partners. The call addressed the importance of a political horizon that would allow the resumption of the negotiating track in accordance with the relevant decisions of international legitimacy and on the basis of the two-State solution, towards the establishment of an independent Palestinian state on the lines of June 4, 1967 with East Jerusalem as its capital. Furthermore, bilateral relations between the two countries were discussed, and the ministers emphasized their strategic importance, which is consistent with direct guidance from Egyptian and Jordanian leadership in this regard, particularly in light of the regional challenges that countries face. The discussion also included the most prominent regional and international issues of mutual interest.

 

On May 24, 2021, Sameh Shoukry visited Jordan and was received by His Majesty, the Jordanian King Abdullah bin Al-Hussein, where Shoukry once again congratulated his Majesty on the occasion of the celebration of the centennial of the Jordanian State. Shoukry emphasized the uniqueness of Egyptian-Jordanian relations in their various fields, and expressed Cairo's pride in the remarkable level of bilateral relations and its desire to meet the aspirations of the two fraternal peoples. The meeting also addressed developments in the Palestinian Question in the wake of recent developments.

 

On May 5, 2021, Sameh Shoukry discussed the continuing deterioration of the situation in the Palestinian territories during a phone call with Ayman Safadi. This was accomplished as part of their ongoing coordination and close consultation. They emphasized the importance of continuing to work on immediate ways to end the conflict in the Gaza Strip, preventing any provocations in Jerusalem, and advocating for all efforts to protect the Palestinian people's rights.

 

On April 25, 2021, in a phone call, Sameh Shoukry and Ayman Safadi, discussed the serious developments in Jerusalem. They emphasized the importance of Israel ceasing all provocation in order to end the tension and restore calm. The ministers condemned acts of violence and incitement against Palestinians in East Jerusalem's old city and urged Israel to put a stop to them immediately.

 

On April 4, 2021, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi called King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein, and was assured of Jordan's stability. President El-Sisi reaffirmed Egypt's government and people's full solidarity with Jordan, as well as their full support for all recent decisions made by his brother, King Abdullah II, to ensure the Kingdom's security and stability. The Jordanian King expressed his heartfelt gratitude for the President's support, which reflects the depth and strength of the historical ties between the two countries and two fraternal peoples.

 

On March 3, 2021, Sameh Shoukry, Ayman Safadi, and Palestinian Minister for Foreign Affairs and Expatriates, Riyad Al-Maliki, held a consultative meeting at the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the Palace of Tahrir. The meeting witnessed an agreement on the importance of continuing to work during the coming period to create an environment conducive to serious and constructive negotiations between the Palestinian and Israeli parties. This is done in order to end the current stalemate and to seek a comprehensive, just and lasting peace that will ensure the establishment of an independent and viable Palestinian State on the borders of June 4, 1967, with East Jerusalem as its capital.

 

On January 18, 2021, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi visited Jordan, at the invitation of King Abdullah. The talks addressed ways to strengthen bilateral relations between the two countries in all areas of trade, development, investment and security cooperation, as well as information exchange. Furthermore, the discussions covered a number of regional and international issues of mutual interest. The two sides agreed on the importance of bolstering their efforts to mobilize the international community in order to find political solutions to crises in some of the region's countries and to reduce the threat of terrorism and extremism, restoring security and stability, preserving the territorial integrity of those countries, and safeguarding the fate of their peoples. The meeting featured a discussion of Egyptian-Jordanian efforts to strengthen the tripartite cooperation mechanism with Iraq. The two sides agreed to intensify joint coordination for the implementation of development projects and plans among the three countries in order to realize their peoples' hopes for progress, prosperity, and a peaceful and stable life.

 

On August 25, 2020, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi participated in the third summit among Egypt, Jordan and Iraq, within the framework of the Tripartite Cooperation Mechanism, whose first round was launched in Cairo in March 2019. A tripartite summit was held in the Jordanian capital Amman among President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, King Abdullah II of Jordan and Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kadhimi of Iraq. The Summit discussed ways to strengthen joint tripartite cooperation among the three countries, particularly in the areas of energy, electricity connectivity, infrastructure, and food. This is in addition to consultation and coordination on regional political and security developments, as well as counter-terrorism efforts. The Summit also discussed the situation in Syria, Libya and Yemen. The leaders stressed the importance of intensifying efforts to reach a comprehensive political settlement that would help to alleviate the enormous human suffering endured by these peoples.

 

On June 24, 2020, Sameh Shoukry, via video conference, participated in the meeting of the Tripartite Cooperation Mechanism among the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Egypt, Iraq and Jordan, in order to reinvigorate cooperation among the three countries, particularly in economic areas.

 

On March 7, 2020, Sameh Shoukry visited Jordan and was received by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein. On that visit, Shoukry delivered a message from President El-Sisi to King Abdullah on the latest developments regarding the negotiations on Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). King Abdullah II has stated that Jordan stands with Egypt in everything that preserves its water rights and security, stressing the Kingdom's support for Egypt in GERD file.

 

On January 5, 2020, Sameh Shoukry met his counterpart, Jordanian Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi at Riyadh, on the framework of their participation in the ministerial meeting of Arab and African States bordering the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. This was done as part of Egypt's and Jordan's ongoing cooperation and consultation. The Ministers discussed strategies for dealing with a number of current regional challenges, with the goal of preventing further escalation in the region.

 

On October 10, 2019, Jordan's King Abdullah II and Queen Rania Al-Abdallah paid a visit to Egypt, where they were welcomed by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and Mrs. El-Sisi. The meeting focused on ways to strengthen bilateral relations in light of the outstanding success of the Joint High Committee's most recent session, which was held in Cairo in early July 2019. The leaders commended the ongoing efforts to promote economic relations and increase trade exchange in order to live up to the level of political relations and historical ties that bind the two peoples together.

 

On July 29, 2019, King Abdullah II visited Egypt, where he was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. Both sides discussed ways to strengthen bilateral relations in light of the twenty-eighth session of the Joint Egyptian-Jordanian High Committee, which was held in early July 2019 under the chairmanship of the two prime ministers. They also discussed joint efforts to combat terrorism.

 

On March 24, 2019, King Abdullah II visited Egypt to participate in the Egyptian-Jordanian-Iraqi Tripartite Summit. He was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. Both sides discussed ways to strengthen bilateral relations as well as issues of mutual concern.

 

On May 17, 2017, King Abdullah II visited Egypt and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The two sides discussed a variety of regional and international issues, emphasizing the importance of advancing international counter-terrorism efforts. On the issue of Palestine, both sides emphasized the importance of building on the momentum created by the new US administration in order to work towards the resumption of direct negotiations between the Palestinian and Israeli sides.

 

On March 29, 2017, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi visited Jordan to participate in the 28th Ordinary Session of the Arab Summit in the Dead Sea, where he was received by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein.

 

On August 24, 2016, King Abdullah II visited Egypt and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. Both sides have discussed ways to strengthen bilateral relations by providing the necessary impetus in various political, economic, and social spheres in order to realize the two fraternal peoples' common interests. This is in addition to their interest in exchanging views on regional and international issues of mutual interest.

 

On August 6, 2015, King Abdullah II visited Egypt to attend the opening ceremony of the New Suez Canal, where he was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, and both sides discussed ways of strengthening bilateral relations between the two countries.

 

On May 23, 2015, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi visited Jordan to participate in the World Economic Forum on the Middle East and North Africa in the Dead Sea, Jordan. It was received by Jordan's King Abdullah II, and the two sides discussed a variety of regional issues, primarily coordination in the fight against terrorism and the possibility of strengthening bilateral cooperation.

 

On March 27, 2015, King Abdullah II visited Egypt to attend the Arab Summit in its 26th session.

 

On March 13, 2015, King Abdullah II visited Egypt to attend “The Egypt Economic Development Conference (EEDC)”, where he was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi on the sidelines of the Conference.

 

On December 11, 2014, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi paid his first visit to Jordan. The President held talks with Jordanian King Abdullah II that focused on developments in the region. The discussions focused on regional developments, the fight against terrorism and the Syrian crisis, as well as developments in the Palestinian territories. The talks also covered bilateral relations and ways to strengthen them in a variety of areas.

 

On November 30, 2014, King Abdullah II arrived to Egypt for a brief working visit and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi in the Presidential Hall at Cairo Airport. A closed bilateral talks meeting was held, followed by an extended meeting in the presence of the two countries' delegations, during which various aspects of bilateral relations, as well as ways to strengthen and develop them in various political and economic areas, were discussed.

 

On September 22, 2014, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi received King Abdullah II at his residence in New York on the sidelines of the sixty-ninth session of the UN General Assembly. The two sides discussed efforts to form the international coalition to combat extremism and terrorism in the region through a comprehensive strategy.  This strategy encompasses not only the security and military dimensions, but also the development and social dimensions, with the goal of eliminating terrorism and confronting all terrorist organizations in the region.

 

On June 8, 2014, King Abdullah II paid a visit to Egypt and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The two leaders affirmed their mutual desire to strengthen fraternity, coordination and consultation that serve the common interests of both countries and peoples, and Arab issues. Furthermore, Jordan's King reiterated Jordan's support for Egypt and its people's choices, as well as its new leadership's efforts to consolidate security and stability and to continue the process of construction and achievement.

 

On February 26, 2014, King Abdullah II paid a visit to Egypt and was received by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. Both sides have discussed various aspects of bilateral relations, as well as ways to strengthen and develop them in a variety of political and economic areas.

Mutual Visits

On 20/5/2017, Investment and International Cooperation Minister Sahar Nasr arrived in Amman to participate in meetings of the World Economic Forum on the Middle East and North Africa

On 17/5/2017, President Abdel Fatah El Sisi received King Abdullah II of Jordan. The two leaders held summit talks on ways of enhancing strategic relations as well as Egyptian and Arab efforts to break the stalemate in the Middle East peace process. The summit tackled challenges facing the Arab world and confirmed the importance to support the international efforts in combating terrorism which is a threat for the whole world.

On 14/5/2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry held a meeting with his Jordanian counterpart Ayman al Safadi at the premises of the Jordanian Foreign Ministry. During the meeting, the two sides tackled ways of boosting bilateral ties along with a host of issues of mutual interest. Shoukry hailed the development in the ties binding the two countries. He also underlined the importance of promoting bilateral ties. The meeting also tackled a host of issues including the need of reviving the Mideast process and reaching a just and comprehensive settlement to the Palestinian cause.

On 29/3/2017, President Sisi participated in the 28th Arab Summit that kicked off in Jordan.

On 26/3/2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry heads for Amman to take part in the preparatory meetings of the 28th Arab summit.

On 16/3/2017, Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry started a session of talks with his Jordanian counterpart Ayman al Safadi during his visit to Egypt. The ongoing talks tackled cooperation and coordination between Cairo and Amman in various issues of mutual interest. The two ministers also discussed regional and international issues, atop of which are the latest developments in Syria, Libya, Yemen and Palestine in addition to the Arab efforts to combat terrorism and extremism.

On 8/2/2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Jordan, where he handed over a letter of invitation from President Abdel Fattah El Sisi to Jordanian King Abdullah II. During the visit, Shoukry emphasized the importance of developing Egyptian-Jordanian ties to the benefit of both countries. He also expressed Cairo’s appreciation of Jordan's supportive stances towards Egypt, especially with regard to addressing challenges and terrorism. The two sides discussed the situation in the region specially status in Syria, Iraq, Lybia and Yemen. They agreed upon intensifying efforts to reach political settlement of the current crises in the region.

On 4/1/2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received an official invitation from Jordanian King Abdullah II to attend the coming Amman-hosted Arab summit that will be held in March. Sisi received the invitation at a meeting with Jordanian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Nasser Judeh. President Sisi hailed bilateral relations and expressed his confidence that Jordan can undertake its role properly for rendering the coming summit a success. The president asserted that recent developments in the Arab arena highlighted the importance of supporting the concept of the national State and respecting sovereignty of States on their territories.

On 27/11/2016, Jordanian Interior Minister Salameh Hammad has praised current efforts exerted by the Interior Ministry and the role it plays in fighting terrorism and crimes. During a meeting with Interior Minister Magdy Abdel Ghaffar, Hammad said his visit to Cairo is part of profound ties and constant consultation between officials in the two countries. Abdel Ghaffar said his ministry is very interested in boosting bridges of communication with security bodies in Arab countries, especially Jordan.

On 27/8/2016, Transport Minister Galal Said and his Jordanian counterpart Yahya Kisbi approved the final results of a joint meeting, aimed at cooperating in the field of facilitating the movement of passengers and commodities between the two countries. Representatives of the parties concerned in Egypt and Jordan met to speed up the transportation of people and goods and remove all obstacles as far as the issue is concerned. The two sides agreed on mechanisms for facilitating customs release.

On 24/8/2016, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi held talks with Jordanian King Abdullah II. The two leaders discussed means of boosting Egyptian-Jordanian ties in various domains as well as the latest regional development. Sisi and Abdullah II also touched upon a number of regional and international issues of mutual concern.

On 12/8/2016, a delegation, chaired by Transport Minister Galal Saeed, headed for Amman on a two-day visit to Jordan. Assigned by Prime Minister Sherif Ismail, Saeed met Jordanian Prime Minister Hani al Mulki and Minister of Transport Yehya Kisbi. During the visit, the minister discussed with Jordanian officials common issues in the field of passenger and cargo transportation between the two countries and means to support maritime transportation between Aqaba and Nuweiba ports. The minister participated in general assembly meetings of the Arab Bridge Maritime Company.

On 9/8/2016, Minister of Trade and Industry Tarek Qabil paid a visit to Jordan where he met Jordanian Prime Minister Hani al Mulqi and Deputy Premier and Minister of Trade Gawad al Anani. They discussed means of cooperation and promotion of economic relations.

On 25/6/2016, Jordan's Foreign Minister Nasser Gouda and head of the Jordanian Intelligence Faisal al-Shobaki visited Cairo and met Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry within the context of coordination and consultation over the regional developments.

On 20/3/2016, an Egyptian high-level delegation, led by Assistant Foreign Minister for Consular Affairs Hisham Naqeeb, started a two-day visit to Amman. The delegation includes representatives from ministries of interior, manpower, higher education, finance and housing as well as the General Authority for Investment and Pope Tawadros II and financial and administration manager of "Long Live Egypt" fund Akram el Nashar. The visit aims to follow up the conditions of Egyptian nationals living abroad.

On 25/1/2016, International Cooperation Minister Sahar Nasr took part in a meeting of an initiative of the World Bank Group and the Islamic Development Bank, which was held in the Jordanian capital Amman, to discuss the refugee crisis. The meeting was attended by 80 representatives for states and major financing institutions. The initiative  aimed at drawing up a regional and international framework to contain the negative economic effects of the mounting refugee crisis in the region and providing support for the countries that host victims of regional conflicts in the Arab world.

On 24/1/2016, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry handed Jordanian King Abdullah II a message from President Abdel Fattah El Sisi on regional developments. The message comes as part of continued political consultations between the two countries. The meeting took up the situation in Syrian, Iraq, Yemen and Libya. Shoukry conveyed to the Jordanian king Egypt's vision regarding the necessity of starting political negotiations on the Syrian conflict as soon as possible. Talks also covered the situation in Libya and the importance of providing support to the national reconciliation government in order to carry out its mission. Egypt and Jordan also asserted the importance of closing ranks among the various Libyan parties in order to restore security and combat terrorism.

On 6/8/2015, Jordanian King Abdullah II visited Egypt to attend the inauguration ceremony of the New Suez Canal.

On 5/8/2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met with his Jordanian counterpart Nasser Judeh who is visiting Cairo to attend an Arab League meeting. The meeting between Shoukry and Judeh took up conditions in the Palestinian territories. They exchanged views on the crises in Yemen, Syria and Libya.

On 27/5/2015, Jordanian Minister of Industry Maha Ali has said that relations with Egypt are progressing at all levels. Ali said she and Minister of International Cooperation co-chaired preparatory meetings of the joint committee to discuss means of increasing the volume of trade exchange.

On 27/3/2015, Jordanian King Abdullah II visited Egypt to attend 26th meeting of the Arab summit.

On 13/3/2015, Jordanian King Abdullah II visited Egypt to attend Egypt Economic Development Conference.

On 27/2/2015, Egypt and Jordan have agreed to form a joint working group to stand up to current regional challenges amid the escalating threats of terrorist groups in the Middle East.

On 24/1/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met Prince Hassan bin Talal. During the meeting, President Sisi stressed the special nature of the Egyptian-Jordanian relations.

On 30/11/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received visiting Jordanian King Abdullah II. The two leaders reviewed the latest developments in the region. The two leaders first held closed-door talks and then the two delegations joined the talks which mainly tackled ways to boost bilateral ties in the political and economic fields.

On 11/12/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi visited to Jordan for talks with King Abdullah II. Egyptian-Jordanian talks are to tackle boosting bilateral relations and the latest regional developments.

On 22/9/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi held talks with Jordanian King Abdullah II in New York on international efforts exerted to fight terrorism.

On 8/10/2013, Former President Adli Mansour discussed Syria, Palestine issues and economic ties with Jordan's King Abdullah II during a visit to Amman. "The meeting discussed common affairs, such as trade between Egypt and Jordan,”

On 16/2/2008, In the framework of continuous consultation between Egypt and Jordan and the exchange of visits between leaders of both countries, King Abdullah, visited Egypt, held talks in Sharm El-Sheikh with former President Hosni Mubarak and discussing the latest developments on the Arab and regional arenas and efforts to achieve peace and stability in the region, as well as ways to enhance bilateral ties between the two countries in various fields, including Egypt's exports of natural gas to Jordan and the registration and pricing of Jordanian medicines in the Egyptian markets.

Economic Relationship

 The trade movement between Egypt and Jordan has increased significantly in recent years, coinciding with the development of political relations. According to data from the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), the economic relations between Egypt and Jordan developed during the first half of 2021 as follows:

1-    The value of trade between Egypt and Jordan was $430.8 million in the first half of 2021, compared to $341.3 million during the same period in 2020, at an increase of 26.2%.

2-    Egyptian exports to Jordan amounted to $348 million during the first half of 2021, compared to $274.3 million during the same period in 2020, at an increase of 26.9%.

3-     Egyptian imports from Jordan accounted for $82.8 million during the first half of 2021, compared to $66.9 million during the same period in 2020, at an increase of 23.7%.

4-    The value of remittances from Egyptians working in Jordan was $678.5 million during the 2019/2020 fiscal year, compared to $654.2 million during the 2018/2019 fiscal year, at an increase of 3.7%.

5-    Remittances from Jordanians working in Egypt reached $11.1 million during the fiscal year 2019/2020, compared to $17.7 million during the fiscal year 2018/2019, at a decrease of 37.5%.

6-    Jordanian investments in Egypt amounted to $41 million during the first half of the 2020/2021 fiscal year, compared to $7 million during the same period in 2019/2020, at an increase of 485.7%.

The two countries are bound by several joint bilateral and regional trade agreements, the most important of which are the Greater Arab Free Trade Agreement (GAFTA), which covers several Arab countries, and the Bilateral Trade Agreement.

Egypt and Jordan share two free trade conventions; the Agadir and GAFTA, which have a trading volume of $1.185 billion annually.

Egypt exports gas to Jordan, as well as a variety of agricultural products and crops; the most important of which are rice, potatoes, onions, guava, and mango.

Egypt imports from Jordan some agricultural products such as olive oil.

 

Salient Economic Relationships between Two Countries

On November 28, 2021, the Jordanian Minister of Digital Economy and Entrepreneurship, Ahmad Al-Hanandeh and the Iraqi Minister of Communication, Arkan Shehab Al Shibanee visited Egypt and were received by Minister of Communication and Information Technology (ICT), Dr. Amr Talaat. Both sides discussed the means of enhancing cooperation and supporting the tripartite relationships in the fields of ICT. This is in the framework of the tripartite cooperation summits; the first round of which was launched in Cairo in March 2019 under the auspices of the leaders of the three countries.

On October 20, 2021, the Jordanian Secretary-General of the Ministry of Agriculture, Muhammed Issa Al-Hiyari and his delegation visited Egypt and were received by the Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Al-Sayed El-Quseir on the framework of the meetings of the Regional Committee for the Project on Sound Ecosystems for Pastures Development. Both sides agreed to establish contact points between the two countries to expedite the resolution of any pending problems, and the Joint Agricultural Technical Committee met in Jordan's capital, Amman.

On October 2, 2021, the Jordanian Prime Minister, Bisher Al Khasawneh and his delegation visited Egypt and were received by the Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly at the Government Headquarters in The New Administrative Capital (NAC). Both sides reviewed Egypt’s experience with this national project. The Jordanian Prime Minister and his delegation were impressed by the infrastructure currently implemented in Egypt, and the advanced level of implementation, especially the new highways and the axes leading to NAC.

On September 6, 2021, the Minister of Industry, Trade, and Small Industries, Nevine Gamea, met with Jordan's Ambassador, Amjad Al-Adayleh, in Cairo and discussed a number of bilateral issues of mutual interest. On top of these issues are enhancing joint cooperation in the industrial and commercial fields, as well as overcoming the obstacles that the Jordanian investors may face in the Egyptian market. This is in addition to facilitating trade flows in Egypt and Jordan and enhancing joint cooperation in the field of developing micro, small and medium-size enterprises.

 On March 25, 2021, Dr. Rania Al-Mashat, Minister of Investment and International Cooperation and tripartite cooperation coordinator in the Egyptian ministerial group, presided over a ministerial coordination meeting held via video conference among Egypt, Jordan and Iraq to conclude discussions about enhancing strategic cooperation and economic integration among the three countries. This was done by the participation of Dr. Mohamed Shaker, the Minister of Electricity and Renewable Energy, Engineer Tarek El-Molla, Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Dr. Ali El-Moselhi, Minister of Supply and Internal Trade, Dr. Asem El-Gazzar, Minister of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities (MOHUUC), Engineer Kamel El-Wazir, Minister of Transport, Nevine Gamea, Minister of Industry, Trade and Small Industries and a representative of the Ministry of Agriculture. From the Jordanian side, Engineer Maha Ali, Minister of Industry, Trade and Supply and tripartite cooperation coordinator participated as well as Ministers of Public Works and Housing, Transport, Agriculture, Energy and Mineral Resources and Jordan’s Ambassador in Cairo. From the Iraqi side, Dr. Khaled Battal, Minister of Planning and the tripartite cooperation coordinator participated as well as the Ministers of Construction, Housing and Municipalities, Transport, Agriculture, Industry and Minerals. Ministers from the three countries discussed the meeting's outcomes in the previous period, joint cooperation projects that are proposed to be implemented, and developments in the suggested cooperation fields. There are five fields; transport of goods and people, food security and logistic areas, energy and electricity linkages, gas and petrochemicals, health and drug registration, as well as construction and building.  This was done in order to reach final agreements on the memorandum of understanding (MoU) and common agreements resulting from the tripartite summit's outcomes and mandates to put the suggestions for strategic integration and economic and development cooperation into force between the leaders of the three countries. The status of cooperation areas in the agricultural sector, food security, and logistics was also discussed. Furthermore, the establishment of a regional centre for food security and the enhancement of agricultural trade exchange between the three countries were discussed. The meeting also discussed projects involving the three countries in the transportation of goods, passengers, and labor force. This is in addition to the common fields of cooperation in housing, reconstruction, and urban development.

On October 4, 2020, Egypt, Jordan, and Iraq's Ministers of Industry and Trade met via video conference to discuss the outcomes of the Tripartite Summit held in Amman on August 25, 2020. The meeting was attended by Egyptian Minister of Industry and Trade Nevine Gamea, Jordanian Minister of Industry and Trade and Supply Dr. Tarek Al-Hamory, and Iraqi Minister of Industry and Minerals Manhal Aziz Al-Khabbaz, as well as a number of officials from the three countries. In the first stage of enhancing trilateral cooperation, a number of decisions were made to improve economic, commercial, and investment integration and cooperation, as well as to identify four targeted sectors. The decisions included pharmaceutical, chemical, and textile industries as well as ceramic industry.

On February 8, 2020, Dr. Tarek Al-Hamory, Jordan's Minister of Industry, Trade, and Supply, and his delegation visited Egypt as part of the meetings of the Ordinary Session of the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League (ALECSO), and he was received by Nevine Gamea, Minister of Industry and Trade. Both sides discussed ways to strengthen the two countries' joint commercial and industrial cooperation, as well as how to achieve economic integration in order to realize the peoples' interests.

On April 6, 2019, Dr. Sahar Nasr, Minister of Investment and International Cooperation, and Engineer Amr Nassar, Minister of Trade and Industry visited Jordan to participate in the events of the World Economic Forum about Middle East and North Africa “Davos Forum”.

On October 26, 2018, the Jordanian Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Ibrahim Shahahadeh visited Egypt and was received by Ezz El-Deen Abu Steat. Both sides discussed ways to facilitate trade exchange measures between Egypt and Jordan involving agricultural products and commodities, as well as ways to overcome obstacles in this regard. They also discussed the possibility of exchanging experiences in agriculture, water management, and rationalization.

On June 29, 2018, the Jordanian Minister of Agriculture, Engineer Khaled Haeifat visited Egypt and was received by Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Ezz El-Deen Abu Steat. Both sides discussed the means of enhancing and intensifying joint cooperation between the two countries in the fields related to the agricultural sector.

On May 20, 2017, Dr. Sahar Nasr, Minister of Investment and International Cooperation visited Jordan to participate in the Economic Forum for the Middle East and North Africa area “Davos” in the Dead Sea.

On August 9, 2016, Minister of Trade and Industry, Engineer Tarek Kabil visited Jordan and was received by Hani Mulki, the Jordanian Prime Minister. Both sides discussed the means of closer economic relations between both countries.

On January 25, 2016, Dr. Sahar Nasr, Minister of International Cooperation, led a delegation to Jordan to participate in the second meeting of the World Bank Initiative in collaboration with the UN and the Islamic Development Bank (IsDP), which drew more than 80 participants from major states and financial institutions to Jordan’s capital, Amman. The initiative sought to establish a regional and international framework for mitigating the negative economic effects of the region's escalating refugee crisis, as well as to provide assistance to the host countries for victims of regional conflicts in the Arab world .

 

Gas and Energy

On April 5, 2019, Engineer Tarek El-Molla, Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Wealth, visited Jordan and was received by Hala Zawati, the Jordanian Minister of Energy. Both sides discussed the executive stance for the joint projects, as well as the strategies that were put in place to secure energy supply and diversify its sources, particularly natural gas, between the two countries in order to meet the needs of the two brotherly countries. They also discussed the possibility of utilizing Egyptian companies' expertise and capacities to upgrade the infrastructure for natural gas use in Jordanian cities, based on Egypt's extensive experience as a pioneering country in the use of natural gas. The Jordanian-Egyptian Company "Fajr" for Natural Gas Transmission and Supply, and the Technical Company for Gas Pipeline Operation Services (TGS) signed a long-term contract to operate and maintain the Jordanian natural gas line and its facilitations. Moreover, the two ministers inaugurated a project to develop a key natural gas compressor station in the Jordanian city of Aqaba. The station, which includes four compressors with a total production capacity of 22 MW, is regarded as the main connecting point for natural gas trade between Egypt and Jordan.

On October 22, 2018, Engineer Tarek El-Molla, Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Wealth, visited Jordan and was received by the Jordanian Prime Minister, Omar Razzaz. Both parties signed an agreement to strengthen cooperation in the field of training and sharing experiences in the gas and petroleum industries, as well as technology transfer.

On October 5, 2018, Egypt and Jordan signed an agreement to export the Egyptian gas to the Jordanian National Electric Power Company (NEPCO) from Arish to Aqaba by about 250 million feet3/day. This is considered a significant amount, equaling 2.6 billion m3 of gas/year, or roughly 75% of Jordan's annual natural gas consumption.

On August 8, 2018, Engineer Tarek El-Molla, Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Wealth, held an expanded session with the Jordanian Minister of Energy, Hala Zawati. The session included a discussion on the executive stance for the joint projects, as well as the strategies set to secure energy supply and diversify its sources, particularly natural gas, between the two countries. They also discussed the possibility of utilizing Egyptian companies' expertise and capacities to upgrade the infrastructure for natural gas in Jordanian cities, based on Egypt's extensive experience as a pioneering country in the use of natural gas.

On November 15, 2015, Egypt began exporting liquefied gas from Jordan after modifying the Egyptian-Jordanian pipeline to operate in reverse. The implementation of the second stage of the pipeline by a group of companies led by the Egyptian Petro Jet Company is regarded as the largest foreign construction operation for Egyptian companies operating abroad. The third stage of the Arab gas pipeline, 310 km long, is expected to be completed in July 2007 from the Jordanian-Syrian borders to Homs.

On January 8, 2006, the experimental operation of the second stage began from Aqaba city in the south to Rehab area north of Jordan on the Jordanian-Syrian borders. This line is approximately 395 km long and 36 inches in diameter from Aqaba to Rehab. It includes a station for gas compressors and an advanced control system with a capacity of 10 billion m3 annually. It costs $ 300 million.

In 2003, Egyptian gas began to be pumped into Jordan in its experimental and early stages, where it contributes to the transfer of gas from the Mediterranean and Delta water fields from Arish to Taba over a distance of 265 km. Then, it passes to Jordan through Aqaba Gulf by sea- lane. Furthermore, it contributes to the expansion of gas to the Aqaba Thermal Power Plant, which has a capacity of 650 MW.

 

Electricity

On March 15, 2015, Dr. Mohamed Shaker, Minister of Electricity and Renewable Energy, witnessed the signing of an agreement to provide land for a 50 MW solar plant project in Kom Ombo. In addition, he signed MoU with the Jordanian company Faz for the construction of solar plants with a total capacity of 2,000 MW and at an estimated total investment of $3.5 billion.

 

Military Relationship

Military affairs between Egypt and Jordan are one of the main components of relationships due to the mutual interests of both parties. Military cooperation between Egypt and Jordan takes several forms; namely joint military training and maneuvers. Academically, Jordan is among the Arab countries whose students accept to study at Egyptian military colleges, including the Command and Staff College, which annually awards a master's degree in military science. The armed forces of the two countries have participated in many joint maneuvers. Egypt and Jordan are among Arab Cordon States surrounding Israel that fought joint wars against it, the most important of which were the 1948 and the 1967 wars. The Joint Defense Agreement between the two countries was signed just before the 1967 war, which placed the forces of the two countries under joint command. The Egyptian Lieutenant-General, Abdel Moneim Riad, was the commander of the advanced command center in Amman, Jordan, and was appointed commander-in-chief of the Jordanian Front as the 1967 war broke out.

 

Joint Military Training

 

The exchange of combat experiences and joint training is one of the most important parameters of defense relations between the Egyptian and Jordanian parties. The armed forces of the two countries participated in several trainings, the most important of which were Ain Goliath and Aqaba exercises. Both forces participated in regional trainings, such as: Bright Star, Eager Lion and North Thunder Maneuvers.

 

Highlights of Military Visits and Maneuvers

 

On November 10, 2021, Prince Hussein bin Abdullah, and his accompanying delegation witnessed one of the training activities conducted by the Thunderbolt forces at field marshal Hussein Tantawi's military base. The events began with the speech of the Commander of the Thunderbolt Forces, during which he conveyed the greetings and appreciation of Lieutenant-General Mohammed Zaki, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Minister of Defense and Military Production, and General Osama Askar, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. They welcomed Prince Hussein bin Abdullah to The Land of Egypt, stressing that the men of the Thunderbolt forces work with determination and will to maintain the highest levels of combat efficiency to preserve the homeland.

 

On June 19, 2021, the joint training activities (TUWAIQ 2), which were implemented over several days at Prince Sultan Air Base in KSA, were concluded, with the participation of elements from the air forces and paratroopers from Egypt, KSA, the United Arab of Emirates (UAE), Jordan and the Sultanate of Oman, as well as the participation of Bahrain and Kuwait as observers.

 

The final phase of the training included a number of various training activities and the implementation of an aerial parachute airdrop to provide the forces involved in the training with their various fuel and ammunition needs through medium supply and heavy projection.

 

During the training, the high capacity and professionalism of the participating elements in carrying out the tasks were demonstrated, reflecting the extent to which the armed forces of the Arab states have high human, technical and skillful capabilities.

 

On June 9, 2021, Lieutenant-General Mohammed Zaki, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Minister of Defense and Military Production, led a high-level military delegation to Jordan to attend the centennial anniversary of the foundation of the Jordanian State.

 

On November 22, 2020, the joint training activities (Saif Al-Arab) were launched in Egypt with the participation of KSA, UAE, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Kingdom of Bahrain and the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. Its events continued until November 26, 2020 at Mohammed Najib Military Base and the northern military region.

 

On November 10, 2019, joint training activities (Dawn of the East 1) were concluded. Elements of the Egyptian, Pakistani, Jordanian and several countries participated as observers, and the event continued within two weeks on the Pakistani territory. The final phase was attended by a number of leaders and officers of the Egyptian, Pakistani and Jordanian armed forces, the Egyptian and the Jordanian military attachés.

 

On October 22, 2019, members of the Jordanian armed forces arrived to Egypt to participate in the joint Egyptian-Jordanian training "Aqaba 5", which lasted for several days in combat training fields within the southern military region and the Red Sea. Aqaba 5 training is carried out annually in exchange between the armed forces of the two brotherly countries.

 

On December 24, 2018, the event of the Joint Egyptian-Jordanian Training "Aqaba 4" was concluded. It was co-implemented by elements of both the Egyptian and Jordanian Land, Navy and Special Forces. The training that took place in Jordan is part of the joint training plan of the armed forces of both countries, with the aim of unifying military concepts and exchanging training experiences.

 

On November 14, 2017, members of the armed forces of Jordan arrived to Egypt to participate in the joint training activities "Aqaba 2017" to transfer and exchange experiences between the participating forces from both sides.

 

On November 7, 2016, elements of the Egyptian Land, Naval and special forces arrived to Jordan to carry out the joint Egyptian-Jordanian training "Aqaba 2016". This aims at supporting and confirming the ability of the participating elements to plan, coordinate and joint work.

 

On December 29, 2015, both Lieutenant-General Sedki Sobhi, the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the Minister of Defense and Military Production, and the General Marshal Mohammed Al-Zabin, the Jordanian Advisor of His Majesty for Military Affairs and the Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff, witnessed the joint training "Aqaba 2015". It has been carried out by elements of the Egyptian and Jordanian special troops, as part of the joint training plan for the armed forces of both brotherly countries. This aims at strengthening military partnerships and cooperation to support security and stability efforts in the region.

Cultural and Educational Relations

The two countries are connected by several cultural ties, whether in terms of language, heritage, architecture and cuisine, where geographical convergence has greatly contributed in enhancing cultural convergence. The Nabataean civilization flourished in Jordan in ancient times, and it was deeply connected to and influenced by Egypt, whether in trade, architectural art, or culture. This civilization also extended to parts of Sinai in Egypt. The Nabataean architecture in general and the Petra architecture in particular, have been influenced by the Egyptian architecture. This is evident in many examples of funerary architecture, such as carved royal cemeteries and cut stone tombs.

The cultural and civilizational interdependence between the two regions increased after the Islamic conquest in the seventh century. The relationship between the Levant and Egypt gives an idea of the development of historical events in Jordan in the right way. Jordan has been, and is still affected by the neighboring areas due to successive civilizations. Egypt's rulers, including the Ayyubids, Fatimids, and Mamluks, left numerous traces in Jordan, including the Citadel of Al-Rabad in 1184 and the Great Mosque of Ajloun in northern Jordan, where the mosque's minaret was built in 1263 AD during the reign of Sultan Zahir Baibars.

Cultural relations between Egypt and Jordan are witnessing an ongoing activity of year-round exchange of visits between academics and specialists, as well as organizing specialized workshops and training programs within the framework of technical assistance and exchange of experiences in many fields.

Egypt has about 870 Jordanian students, including those who go to public and private schools. There are about 7,000 Egyptian students enrolled in various levels of education. Mutual educational grants are among the most prominent manifestations of cooperation between the two sides. Jordanian students at Egyptian universities receive 10 free medical school grants and 15 free postgraduate scholarships in various disciplines as well as 15 human medicine seats each year. The Jordanian government provides Egyptian students 100 scholarships annually, including 20 free grants at various public universities.

Cooperation Agreements Signed between the Two Countries in Culture and Media

On August 31, 2016, Dr. Sahar Nasr, Minister of International Cooperation, signed with Dr. Mahmoud Al-Momani, Jordanian Minister of Information, a joint cooperation program between the Middle East News Agency and the Jordanian News Agency “Petra”. They agreed on:

·           - An executive program for cultural cooperation between the two countries for 2017 and 2019.

·         - A proposed executive program for the 2017 and 2018 Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Planning.

·         - Executive Program for Youth Cooperation between the two countries for 2017 and 2019.

Tourism Relationships

Relations between Egypt and Jordan have witnessed a remarkable development in the field of tourism, where the city of Sharm El-Sheikh is a major destination for Jordanian tourists. Statistics indicate that the Jordanian market is one of the most important Arab ones exporting tourism to Egypt. It is worth mentioning that there is no visa for Jordanians to Egypt, and there is no visa for Egyptians to Jordan. The origin is to exempt citizens of the two countries from obtaining visas, but there are conditions set for certain categories of Egyptians to enter Jordan, especially the category of workforce. There are also daily flights between both countries via several airlines, including Egypt Air and Royal Jordanian. Navigation lines are located through the port of Aqaba either by ferry or by speedboat, as well as tour companies for land and sea travel, such as the Arab Road Transport Association.

On November 11, 2021, a meeting was held, in the presence of Prince Hussein bin Abdullah II, Dr. Mustafa Madbouli, the Prime Minister, Dr. Bashar Al-Khasawneh, Prime Minister of Jordan, Dr. Khaled Anani, Minister of Tourism and Antiquities, Naif Hamidi Al-Fayez, Minister of Tourism and Antiquities of Jordan, Ambassador Amjad Al-Azaila, Jordan's Ambassador to Cairo, and the ministerial delegation accompanying the Crown Prince of Jordan, and Dr. Mostafa Waziri, Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, to discuss strengthening cooperation in the field of tourism, and exchanging experiences between the two countries in this field. Prince Al-Hussein bin Abdullah II stressed the full readiness for cooperation and coordination between Jordan and fraternal Egypt in the field of tourism, to benefit from the distinct tourism potentials that the two countries possess. Prince Al-Hussein bin Abdullah, and each of the prime ministers of Egypt and Jordan witnessed the signing ceremony of an executive program for cooperation in the field of tourism between the Ministries of Tourism and Antiquities in Egypt and Jordan, as well as a twinning agreement between Luxor in Egypt and Petra in Jordan. Dr. Khaled Anani confirmed that the governments of Egypt and Jordan, represented in the ministries of tourism and antiquities of the two countries, agreed to move forward in enhancing and strengthening friendly relationships between the two countries by upgrading bilateral cooperation in the field of tourism, recognizing the importance of tourism in promoting economic development, mutual understanding and goodwill between the two brotherly peoples.



Most Visited

From To