09 December 2022 12:01 PM

Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Monday، 06 November 2017 12:00 AM

The relations between Egypt and Saudi Arabia are distinguished with their strong ties as both enjoy a sublime position on the Arab and international scales . King Abdul Aziz Al Saud realized the importance of the Egyptian-Saudi relations and  he said "Arabs are in need of Egypt and Egypt is in need of Arabs". Therefore, he was keen to establish solid relations with Egypt .

The Egyptian-Saudi Relations Strategy:

Egypt and Saudi Arabia enjoy a very distinguished relations  due to their sublime position and incredible  potentials. This position has provided the two countries with key influential capabilities in their foreign relations.

On the Arab level, history proves that Cairo and Riyadh are the two poles of relations and interacts in the Arab regional system. They shoulder a big responsibility to realize  Arab solidarity and achieve the aspired goals for Arab nations from  the Atlantic Ocean to  the Gulf. The strong Egyptian-Saudi relations served all Arab countries, as reflected in War of October 1973.

On the international and Islamic levels, the similarities between the Egyptian and Saudi policies led to  their  rapprochement concerning  many international, Arab and Islamic issues such as the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Palestinian cause. Therefore, the Saudi-Egyptian relations are characterized by strength and sustainability. A number of stances indicated the depth of these  relations:

First: King Abdul Aziz visited Egypt in 1946, though  he did not visit any other  Arab or international country,  excluding  his stay in between Qatar and Kuwait before the unification of the Kingdom.

Second: The most prominent of these stances, which still sticks in minds of  the Egyptians, is the role of King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz during the war of attrition. As he kept supporting Egypt,and  told the late President Gamal Abdel Nasser at a conference held in Khartoum after the 1967 war "Egypt must  not ask but commands."

Third: After former President Hosni Mubarak assumed leadership , the Arabs sensed the danger of keeping Egypt out of the Arab ranks after Sadat signed the Camp David agreement with Israel. In 1986, King Salman bin Abdul Aziz, who was the Amir of Riyadh at that time, had a remarkable role in bringing Egypt and Saudi Arabia together.

Fourth: The relations between Egypt and Saudi Arabia in all stages  were distinguished  by respecting the sovereignty  and supporting  each country as best they could be . In the second Gulf War, the Egyptian soldier was next to his Saudi brother to defend the borders of Saudi Arabia.

Fifth: The Saudi-Egyptian relations continued to form an important and vital strategic depth, which made them the center of power and influence in the Arab and Islamic world.

On 5/7/2017, The foreign ministers of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain  met in Cairo to discuss the developments in the  relations with Qatar and the threats affecting the Arab security.

The meeting was held after the end of an additional deadline that was given to Qatar to respond to demands presented by the four countries which accuse Qatar of supporting terrorism and meddling in their internal affairs.

The four countries confirmed their stance which is based on the necessity of commitment to all international agreements, conventions and resolutions along with the well-established principles of the charters of United Nations, the Arab League and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation along with agreements on fighting international terrorism.

The following principles were highlighted:

1- Commitment to fighting terrorism and extremism in all their forms and preventing their funding or providing safe havens for terrorists.

2- Stopping all acts of instigation and the discourse of hatred or violence

3- Full commitment to Riyadh agreement for the year 2013 and its supplementary agreement and its mechanism of implementation for the year 2014 within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation Council.

4- Commitment to the outcome of the Arab-Islamic-American Summit that was held in Riyadh in May 2017.

5- Stopping interference in the internal affairs of other countries and stopping supporting outlawed entities.

6- All countries of the international community are responsible for fighting all forms of terrorism and extremism as they constitute a threat to international peace and security.

The four Arab countries confirmed that supporting terrorism and extremism and interference in the internal affairs of Arab countries do not tolerate any bargaining or procrastination. The demands that were presented to Qatar came within the framework of guaranteeing commitment to the six principles that were above mentioned and for protecting the Arab national security and maintaining the international peace and security along with fighting terrorism and extremism. These demands are also meant to provide a suitable atmosphere for hammering out a political settlement to regional crises as it became impossible to tolerate the destructive role undertaken by the State of Qatar in these crises.

Political Relations

Policies of the two countries are identical, as they adopt similar stands concerning many issues and crises on the international, Arab and Muslim fronts such as the Arab-Israeli conflict and Palestinian cause. This similarity reflects congruence of principles and strength of relations between the two countries.

In 1926, Egypt and Saudi Arabia signed a friendship agreement. In 1939, they signed the Construction Agreement in Riyadh, by virtue of which Egypt implemented some constructive projects in the Kingdom. Both countries played a key role in the conclusion of Arab League Chart. King Abdul Aziz Al Saud paid a prominent visit to Egypt with the purpose of strengthening and deepening ties between the two countries.


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia supported the Egyptian requests concerning the evacuation of British forces from Egypt and supported  as well the Egyptian opinions in the Arab League, United Nations and all international organizations and gatherings. On 27 October 1955, Egypt and Saudi Arabia signed a joint defense agreement in Cairo.


The brotherly cooperation was very clear during the tripartite aggression against Egypt in 1956, as Saudi Arabia had shown its full support to Egypt in all political, economic and military areas. On 27 August 1956, Saudi Arabia has extended an amount of USD 100 million to Egypt after the United States withdrawn its offer to build the High Dam. 

On 30 October, KSA announced the public mobilization  of its soldiers  in face of the tripartite aggression against Egypt.


During the Arab Summit in August 1967 in Khartoum after the Israeli aggression against Egypt, Syria and Jordan in 1967, Saudi Arabia supported the Arab countries and King Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud called on all Arab countries to stand beside the three countries and allocate big amounts of funds for them.


The Egyptian-Saudi coordination continued till October War, where KSA participated in the costs endured by Egypt during the war. The Kingdom led the battle of oil in the interest of October War, where its strategic and military results proved that coordination between Egypt and Saudi Arabia can achieve the supreme Arab goals and interests.


Following the January 25th, 2011 and June 30, 2013 revolutions, Saudi Arabia provided its political, diplomatic, and financial support to face anti-revolutionary stances, ban the activities of terrorist groups and support the Egyptian economy after the revolution.


City of Neom

Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Jordan are cooperating to attract European cruise companies to operate in the Red Sea during the winter season. Saudi Arabia and Egypt will establish a joint Fund with equal shares that is worth more than $10 billion for the project.

On January 29, 2020, Saudi Attorney General Sheikh Saud bin Abdullah Al-Muajab visited Egypt, and was received by Counselor Hamada El-Sawy, Attorney General.

The two sides discussed the frameworks of cooperation between the two countries, stressing the importance of cooperation in the files of recovery and judicial assignments.

On July 31st, 2020, President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi congratulated the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
under the leadership of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, for the precise and successful organization of the rites of Hajj this year amid the exceptional circumstances of the Coronavirus pandemic, which reflected the Kingdom's ability and extensive experience as well as its keenness to carry such holy responsibility by organizing the greatest Islamic pillar to enable Muslims to perform the rites of Hajj after applying the precautionary measures necessary to achieve the highest standards of safety and health for the guests of Rahman as well as to provide supreme care for them.

 

 

Mutual Visits

Visits between the two countries reflect  the deep and historical relations between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The last twenty years witnessed the exchange of numerous visits between the two countries on all levels.

On October 22, 2018, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Saudi Arabia to deliver a message from President Abdel Fattah El Sisi to Saudi King Salman bin Abdel Aziz . The message tackled means of fostering bilateral relations and enhancing coordination and consultation on regional issues of mutual concern.

On September 11, 2018, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir visited Egypt to participate in the meetings of the Council of the Arab League. During the visit, Jubeir conferred with Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry. The two sides affirmed the commitment of the two countries to support the efforts of stability in Yemen, especially the relevant international efforts in accordance with the three references: the Gulf Initiative, the outputs of the national dialogue and Security Council resolutions, including Resolution No. 2216. The two sides exchanged views on a number of international issues of common concern, especially coordination and unification of stances in international forums.

On April 18, 2018, Lieutenant General Mohammed Farid, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, headed a military delegation to Saudi Arabia, during which he attended the final day of the joint training "Gulf Shield 1". Farid held a meeting with officials of the Saudi Defense Ministry. The two sides discussed ways to strengthen cooperation and military relations between the Armed Forces of both countries in many fields.

On April 14, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi participated in the 29th Arab Summit that kicked off in Dhahran City, Saudi Arabia, with many topics on its agenda. President Sisi delivered a speech during the opening session of the Summit and stressed full support to the Palestinian people in their struggle to attain their lawful rights .He said that the Palestinian cause, which he called a central Arab problem, is fading amid inactivated international resolutions and conflicts among Arabs and among Palestinians themselves.

President Sisi witnessed the conclusion of "Joint Gulf Shield 1" drill held in the Eastern Region in Saudi Arabia under the patronage of King Salman bin Abdel Aziz Al Saud in the presence of a number of leaders of sisterly and friendly countries participating in the one-month exercise.

On March 4, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi welcomed Prince Mohamed Bin Salman, the Saudi crown Prince, the Deputy Premier and Defense Minister who was paying a three-day official visit to Egypt. Number of the Saudi Ministers and senior officials accompanies the Saudi crown prince. President Sisi and the Crown prince then held a tête-à-tête meeting, followed by expanded talks at the level of the two countries delegations. President Sisi welcomed the Saudi crown prince visit, the first official one since he took over as Crown Prince.

On February 11, 2018, Nasser bin Mesfir al-Zahrani visited Egypt and received by Sheikh of Al-Azhar Ahmed al-Tayeb.

On January 21, 2018, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Saudi Arabia to participate in a meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Arab alliance countries in Yemen. The meeting discussed means of supporting and coordinating the delivery of humanitarian aid to Yemen.

On January 3, 2018, House Speaker Ali Abdul Aal visited Saudi Arabia and received by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. The two sides reviewed the fraternal relations between the two countries and the cooperation between the Kingdom and Egypt in the parliamentary field.

On November 28, 2017, Minister of Education and Technical Education TarekShawki received Prince Faisal bin Abdullah Al-Mashari, President of the National Center for Measurement and Evaluation in Saudi Arabia and his accompanying delegation. The two sides discussed aspects of cooperation in the field of measurement development and assessment of examinations.

On November 14, 2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Saudi Arabia and received by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman. The two sides discussed the latest regional developments in the Middle East.

On October 29, 2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Saudi Arabia to participate in the meeting of Foreign Ministers and Chiefs of Staff of the Arab alliance countries in Yemen to discuss the latest developments in the Yemen crisis and coordination among the member countries of the Alliance.

On 22/7/2017, Governor of Makkah region Prince Khalid al Faisal led Saudi Arabia's high-level delegation to the opening ceremony of Egypt's Mohamed Naguib military base in el Hammam city, west of Alexandria.

On 13/7/2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Saudi Arabia to attend a four-way meeting meant to stop Qatar's support for terrorism. The meeting was attended by the foreign ministers of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, in addition to US State Secretary Rex W. Tillerson and the Kuwaiti State Minister for Foreign Affairs. The meeting took up the dimensions of the Qatari crisis.

On 19/5/2017, President Abel Fattah El Sisi visited Saudi Arabia to participate in the US-Arab-Islamic Summit, in the presence of US President Donald Trump and 50 delegations from Arab and Islamic countries.

On 18/5/2017, Investment Minister Sahar Nasr presided over Egypt's delegation participating  in the 42nd annual meeting of the Board of Governors of the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah.

On 23/4/2017, President Abel Fattah El Sisi visited Saudi Arabia, and he was  received by Saudi King Salman bin Abdul Aziz and  both discussed a number of bilateral issues.

On 6/4/2017, Saudi Energy Minister Khaled al Faleh visited Egypt to participate in the activities of the 33rd Executive Committee Meeting of the Arab Ministerial Council for Electricity, and he was received by Prime Minister Sherif Ismail.

On 8/4/2016, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz's visited Egypt, and he  was received by President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. The two sides discussed means of enhancing bilateral relations at all levels.

On 20/3/2016, An Egyptian delegation headed by International Cooperation Minister Sahar Nasr and Investment Minister Ashraf Salman visited Saudi Arabia to participate in the fifth meeting of the Egyptian-Saudi Coordination Council.

On 10/3/2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi visited Saudi Arabia to attend the final declaration of the maneuver of 'Thunder of the North' exercise at King Khalid Military City in Hafr Al Batin in the presence of the Saudi Monarch and a number of leaders of Arab and Islamic countries.

On 11/2/2016, Saudi Arabia's Minister of State Issam Bin Said paid a visit to Egypt, and President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met him. The two sides discussed the development of joint work in various fields.

On 3/2/2016, Immigration Minister Nabila Makram visited Saudi Arabia to discuss the problems of Egyptians in Saudi Arabia and how to find solutions to them within the framework of the distinguished relations between the two countries.

On 10/1/2016, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir visited Egypt and met with Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry on the sidelines of the extraordinary meeting of the Ministerial Council of the Arab League. The talks focused on the distinguished relations between Cairo and Riyadh in various fields.

On 15/12/2015, Saudi Deputy Crown Prince, Deputy Premier and Defense Minister Mohammed bin Salman al Saud visited Egypt,   received by President Abdel Fattah El Sisi and handled by discussions  the meetings of the joint Egyptian-Saudi coordination council, which aimd at strengthening the cooperation, trade and economic exchange in a way that reflects the special relationship between the two countries.

On 25/11/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Saudi Prince and businessman Al-Waleed bin Talal to discuss ways of boosting Saudi investments in Egypt.

On 10/11/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi visited Saudi Arabia to participate in the Fourth Arab and South American Summit, and he was received by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Nayef.

On 25/10/2015, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir visited Egypt, and he  was received by President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. President Sisi received two letters from the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, one of which was an invitation to attend the Fourth Arab and Latin American Summit. The other one included the establishment of an Egyptian-Saudi coordination council for mutual cooperation.

On 6/8/2015, Makkah Emir and Adviser to the Saudi King Prince Khaled Al Faisal will represent the Saudi delegation to the inaugural ceremony of the New Suez Canal.

On 30/7/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Saudi Deputy Crown Prince, Deputy Premier and Defense Minister Mohammed bin Salman al Saud where they held talks followed by an expanded meeting which was attended by the delegations of the two countries. Saudi Deputy Crown Prince Mohamed bin Salman al Saud attended the graduation ceremony of new batches of military academies and institutes.

On 30/7/2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry received his Saudi counterpart Adel al-Jubeir at the presidential palace in Cairo.

On 24/7/2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Saudia Arabia. At a meeting with Salman bin Abdel Aziz in Riyadh, Shoukry stressed President Abdel Fattah El Sisi's appreciation for Saudi stances supportive of Egypt and its people. The meeting tackled Egypt's point of view regarding promoting bilateral ties in this critical stage along with enhancing Arab joint action. King Salman voiced appreciation for President Sisi and the Egyptian people. King Salman reviewed the kingdom's view on upgrading bilateral ties and regional issues.

On 12/7/2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met with Saudi King Salman bin Abdel Aziz as Egypt's top diplomat took part in the funeral of former Saudi foreign minister Saud al-Faisal. Shoukry conveyed President Abdel Fattah El Sisi's heartfelt condolence to the king over the death of Al-Faisal. Shoukry also met with Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Nayef and his Saudi counterpart Adel al-Jubeir.

On 31/5/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir in the presence of Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry and Saudi Ambassador in Cairo Ahmed Qattan.Jubeir conveyed the greetings of Saudi King Salman Bin Abdel Aziz to President Sisi, calling for further enhancing bilateral cooperation. He has also underlined the need for coordination with Saudi Arabia to resolve various challenges in the region, mainly fighting terrorism. The Saudi Minister stressed the strategic importance of Egypt, praising the Egyptian stances in defense of the Arab causes.

On 12/5/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met Advisor to the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and Emir of Makkah Khalid Al-Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Secretary General of the Arab Thought Foundation Prince Bandar bin Khalid Al-Faisal and Saudi Ambassador in Cairo Ahmed Qattan. The Emir of Makkah convoyed greetings from Saudi King Salman Bin Abdul Aziz. Sisi praised Saudi stances in support of Egypt and the will of its people, the spokesman added. The President also confirmed the distinguished bilateral relations between the two countries and peoples.

On 2/5/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi held talks in Riyadh with Saudi King Salman bin Abdel Aziz that reflected close relations between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The discussions also showed keenness of both leaders on consultation and coordination to serve the interests of the Arab and Islamic nations. They reviewed the developments on the Arab and regional arenas, particularly the current conditions in Yemen. The leaders underlined the importance of combating attempts to interfere in the Arab affairs.

On 27/3/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Saudi King Salman bin Abdel Aziz to attend the 26th Arab Summit in Egypt's Sharm el Sheikh.

On 13/3/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Saudi Crown Prince Muqrin Bin Abdel Aziz to attend  Egypt Economic Development Conference.

On 28/3/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi arrived in Riyadh on a day-long visit for talks with King Salman bin Abdel Aziz. The Saudi king led senior officials welcoming the President at the airport.

On 24/1/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi offered condolences to Saudi Arabia's Royal Family over the death of King Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz. The Awqaf, Interior and Foreign Ministers along with Al Azhar Grand Imam accompanied the President during his visit. Sisi met with King Salman bin Abdel Aziz, Crown Prince Muqrin Bin Abdel Aziz and Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Nayef.

On 19/1/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi and his accompanying delegation arrived in Riyadh, from the UAE, to inquire after the health of Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz. Sisi was received at Riyadh Air Base by a raft of Saudi officials led by Prince Muqrin bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, the Deputy Crown Prince.

On 20/12/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met with Chief of the Saudi royal court and special envoy of the Saudi King Khaled bin Abdel Aziz Al-Tuwaijri to tackled ways of activating an initiative proposed by Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz Al-Saud during a Riyadh conference to support Egypt and to reach reconciliation among Arab countries, especially between Egypt and Qatar.

On 12/3/2014, Interior Minister Major General Mohamed Ibrahim met  with Saudi Interior Minister Prince Mohamed Bin Nayef Bin Abdel Azizi, the honorary head of the Arab Interior Ministers Council. During the meeting, the Saudi minister expressed his country's backing for the measures made by the Interior Ministry in combating terror in order to safeguard the Egyptian people in view of the current challenges facing the Arab region.

On 18/9/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met  in Heliopolis presidential palace with Saudi Intelligence Chief Prince Khaled bin Bandar bin Abdel Aziz who delivered to him a message from Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz. In the message, the Saudi monarch expressed appreciation for Egypt's great historical role in serving the Arab and Islamic countries, in defending their interests and causes and assisting them to confront their challenges, especially those of terrorism and extremism.

On 7/9/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud Al Faisal . the meeting dealt with the current developments in the region.

On 20/6/2014, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi discussed with Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz ways of boosting bilateral relations in all fields to cope with the deeply-rooted and historical ties between the two countries.

On 18/6/2014, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry left for Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to take part in the 41st meeting of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) ministerial meetings. The meetings discussed the developments in Syria, Libya, Iraq and Palestine.

On 26/3/2014, Former Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmi met with his Saudi counterpart Prince Saud al-Faisal to discuss the latest developments in the Arab world. Also, they talked about means to boost cooperation between the two countries.

On 12/3/2014, Interior Minister Major General Mohammad Ibrahim has voiced appreciation for the Saudi stance supporting Egypt in its efforts to combat terrorism. The remarks were made during his participation at the 31st session of the Arab Interior Ministers Council.

On 4/2/2014, Former Prime Minister Hazem al-Biblawy accompanied by a delegation of ministers left for Saudi Arabia for talks on bolstering bilateral relations in all fields.

On 7/10/2013, Former President Adly Mansour and his accompanying delegation arrived in Jeddah on a visit to Saudi Arabia, as part of his first foreign trip since he assumed office in July. Mansour voiced Cairo's appreciation for Saudi Arabia's backing for Egypt at the political and economic levels.

On 2/9/2013, Former President Counselor Adly Mansour received Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud Al-Faisal and reviewed means of boosting bilateral relations in different fields.

On 21/1/2013, Former President and King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia inaugurated the third session of the Arab Economic Summit which will be attended by kings, heads of State and representatives from 22 Arab countries.

On 11/7/2012, Former President discussed with Crown Prince Salman bin Abdul-Aziz means of enhancing bilateral relations in various domains stressing trade, and investment.

During the period from 1981 to 2007, Former President Mubarak has paid more than 30 visits to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during which he met with Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques to discuss and review all Arab and international issues, latest developments on the Arab and global arenas and bilateral relations. The Saudi Monarch reiterated his country's support of Egypt's attempts to resolve the Palestinian question, a feat which could not be achieved unless Arabs united both their vision and sense of purpose. Discussions also focused on opening new vistas of cooperation between the two countries in the fields of economy and trade as well as on ways of removing obstacles preventing Egyptian and Saudi businessmen from promoting investments and advancing the mutual interests of both countries.

 

 

 

Economic Relations & Mutual Investments

The economic and trade relations between the two countries witnessed continuous interaction and growth, which has been doubled several times since the 1980s. Saudi investments ranked first among the Arab countries investing in Egypt and the second in the global investments.

On 19/9/2019, a delegation of the Federation of Egyptian Industries (FEI), under its Chairman Mohamed el Sweedy, and Saudi businessmen agreed that providing access to information between the Saudi and Egyptian sides is an essential and vital issue for giving impetus to cooperation between the business communities in both countries. This came during a meeting hosted by Chairman of the Council of Saudi Chambers (CSC) Sami bin Abdullah al Obaidi at the premises of the council in Riyadh. During the meeting, the attendees reached an agreement under which the Egyptian side will provide the Saudi one with all updates regarding legislation and measures governing the environment of business and investment in Egypt. Also, Egypt will exchange with Saudi Arabia lists of commodities required by their local markets and work together to maximize the added value of goods and promote manufacturing in Egypt.

Egypt's exports to Saudi Arabia during 2017 amounted to $1.5 billion. Saudi Arabia occupies the fourth position annually in terms of the high value of Egyptian exports. Egypt's main exports to Saudi Arabia during 2017 were exports of  fruits, vegetables, machines, electrical appliances and pharmaceutical products as well as iron and steel. The Kingdom also accounts for 6% of the total Egyptian exports annually. The total volume of trade between the two countries reached $ 5.577 billion, of which $ 4.034 billion are imports.

On March 5, 2018, President Abdul Fattah Al Sisi and Prince Mohammed bin Salman, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense signed a number of bilateral agreements in various fields including:

1. Environment Minister KhaledFahmi and his Saudi counterpart Abdul Rahman bin Abdul Mohsen Al-Fadhlysigned a deal on environment protection and reducing pollution.

2. Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia and Egypt’s Investment and International Cooperationsigned an amended deal on establishing an Egyptian-Saudi investment fund. The agreement was signed by Investment Minister Sahar Nasr and Saudi State Minister Essam bin Saad bin Saeed .

3. The president and the Saudi crown prince witnessed inking a memorandum of understanding between Minister of Investment and International Cooperation and the Saudi Public Investment Fund on activating the Egyptian-Saudi investment fund. Investment Minister Sahar Nasr represented the Egyptian side while Minister of State Essam bin Saad bin Saeed represented the Saudi side .

4. Also, an agreement of an executive program of cooperation to promote investment between the General Authority for Investment and Free Zones and the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority was signed by Minister of Investment Sahar Nasr and Saudi Minister of Commerce and Investment Majed Bin Abdullah Al Kassabi.

On 8/4/2016, International Cooperation Minister Sahar Nasr said that several agreements worth about 25 billion dollars had been signed.

Egypt and Saudi Arabia signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) aimed at establishing a free economic zone in the Sinai Peninsula ,the preparation of feasibility  studies for the establishment of the zone that would include  a seaport to benefit from the promising investment opportunities in this region. In addition to the signing of several agreements with the Saudi Finance Minister and President of the Saudi Fund for Development that  worth about 1.130 billion dollars.This  comes in addition to the endorsement of more agreements on trade worth 1013 billion  dollar.

In 2015, it was agreed on the electric link  project between Egypt and Saudi Arabia , which aims to meet the needs of electric power in Egypt and Saudi Arabia and improve the performance and stability of the network in both countries.

With a sum total of investments exceeding EGP71 billion, Saudi Arabia occupies first place on the list of Arab countries investing in Egypt, second on the list of non-Arab countries. The volume of Egyptian-Saudi inter-trade was estimated at $7.4 billion in 2008.

Mutual Investments:

According to the statement of the General Authority for Investment, the volume of Saudi investments in Egypt amounted to $ 5.777 billion, with 3.557 companies from 1/1/1970 until 31/12/2013.

The industrial sector is ranked first with investments of $ 2 billion, followed by the construction sector  with investment of $ 1 billion. The tourism investments ranked third with $ 933 million, with 268 companies, while investment in the finance sector ranked fourth with 112 companies with $ 693 million, followed by agricultural, service and telecommunications and information technology.

In the context of strengthening these relations, bilateral meetings were held and a number of agreements and memorandums of understanding were signed.

The most prominent Saudi investments in Egypt:

Government investments:

Sumed Company: Saudi Arabia contributes by  15% of the capital of the Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (SUMED) with USD 400 million.It was established in 1974 to connect Ain Soukhna in the Gulf of Suez with Kerir Port on the Mediterranean Sea.

Petrolube Company: Petrolube Egypt Lubricating Oil Company operates a number of car service stations in some areas of Egypt, especially on highways.

Private Investments:

There are many Saudi banks, insurance companies,  hotels and companies in various fields in Egypt.

Projects under study or implementation:

There are some projects under study and implementation in the areas of a) petrochemicals and cement, b) electricity networking, c) ports services, d) agricultural  development projects and many other fields.

 

Cultural & Religious Relations

To embody the distinguished relations between Egypt and Saudi Arabia in various areas of cooperation among them the cultural area, the year 2005 witnessed several religious and cultural activities included:

On May 2, 2018, Minister of Antiquities Khaled Anani received Advisor to the President of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage of Cultural Tourism Prince Sultan bin Fahad bin Nasser bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and his accompanying delegation. They visited Mohammed Ali Palace in Manial and entered the Golden Hall, the Archaeological Mosque, the Hunting Museum, the Private   the Museum Park.

On May 10, 2018, Saudi Minister of Culture and Information Awad bin Saleh Al-Awad visited Egypt to attend the Arab Information Ministers Conference. Minister of Culture Inas Abdel Dayem received him. The two sides discussed ways of cultural and artistic cooperation between the two countries.

On April 8, 2016, During the visit of Saudi King Salman bin Abdul Aziz to Egypt, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi and Saudi King witnessed the signing of Education and Technical Education Minister with his Saudi counterpart an educational executive program, also they witnessed the signing of Culture Minister with his Saudi counterpart an executive program in the field of cultural cooperation.

- Signing a Memo of Understanding (MOU) in the area of Endowment and Islamic affairs.

- Signing an agreement on Fatwa considering  the different points of views  which create some sort of enrichment and  not contradiction.

- Signing the executive  program of cooperation in the field of education during the period 2005-2007.

- The cultural educational Bureau organizing  exams of the Egyptian community students annually.

-  Two bilateral agreements in the field of culture and higher education  are under negotiations.
On August 2nd, 2020, the Grand Imam, Dr. Ahmed Al-Tayeb, Sheikh of Al-Azhar Al-Sharif, made a phone call to the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, in which he congratulated His Majesty on the occasion of the blessed Eid Al-Adha and on his discharge from the hospital after the successful surgery, which His Majesty had performed.

 

 

Military Relations

Egypt and Saudi Arabia enjoy deep military relations.

This is reflected in periodical exchange visits between the leaders and military officials in both countries to share views, experiences, military, security and intelligence information of interest to the two countries.

There are joint training maneuvers by the armies of the two countries such as "Tabuk" for the Infantry Forces, "Faisal" for the Air Force and "Morgan" for the Naval Forces of the two countries.

The mutual statements between the officials of the two countries express the mutual realization of the importance of consolidating the two countries, efforts to face up the common dangers and that the security of the Gulf is part and parcel of Egypt's security.

On 22/11/2020, the joint training activities (Saif Al Arab) were launched in the Arab Republic of Egypt, with the participation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Kingdom of Bahrain and the Democratic Republic of Sudan.

Its activities continued until November 26, 2020, in the combat training fields of the Muhammad Naguib military base and the air and sea training areas in the northern military region.

The arrival of all forces and equipment to the participating countries was completed through the air bases and sea ports, with all preventive and precautionary measures taken during the arrival of the forces and equipment participating in the training.

The first stages of training included indoctrination procedures and a method of organizing cooperation to unify concepts and refine skills to manage joint tasks with the required accuracy and at the specified times, during the implementation of all training tasks to achieve the maximum possible benefit from training and to bring the joint forces in training to a high and professional level in managing combat operations. The forces coordinate among the various naval, air and land weapons.

“Saif Al-Arab” training comes as a continuation to the development and strengthening of military relations between Egypt and the brotherly Arab countries, given that it is considered one of the most sophisticated exercises carried out at the level of the Arab world with the aim of developing and consolidating the foundations of military cooperation and developing joint work between the Egyptian armed forces and the armed forces of brotherly Arab countries, using all the weapons and equipment with advanced technology.

On October 10, 2018, the joint Saudi-Saudi training activities (Tabuk-4) started in the southern military zone in Egypt.

On July25, 2018, Troops from the Egyptian naval forces have launched joint exercises named “The Eagle Response 2018” with troops from the US, Saudi Arabia, and  the UAE .The drills took place in the Red Sea, and troops from South Korea, Pakistan, and Jordan took part as observers.

On April 18, 2018, Lieutenant General Mohammed Farid, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, headed a military delegation to Saudi Arabia, during which he attended the final day of the joint training "Gulf Shield 1". Farid held a meeting with officials of the Saudi Defense Ministry. The two sides discussed ways to strengthen cooperation and military relations between the Armed Forces of both countries in many fields.

On April 14, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi witnessed the conclusion of "Joint Gulf Shield 1" drill held in the Eastern Region in Saudi Arabia under the patronage of King Salman bin Abdel Aziz Al Saud in the presence of a number of leaders of sisterly and friendly countries participating in the one-month exercise.

On 14/4/2015, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi held a meeting with Saudi Defense Minister Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdelaziz al Saud to review latest developments of the Saudi-led Operation Decisive Storm seeking stability  in Yemen.The Saudi minister hailed Cairo's supportive stance on the military operation, highlighting key role  played by the Egyptian navy.

On 10/4/2015, Defense Minister Colonel General Sedki Sobhi held a meeting with his Saudi counterpart Prince Mohammed bin Salman to discuss military cooperation. The meeting took up the latest developments of the military operations led by Saudi Arabia and means of enhancing the military action.

On 14/2/2015, The Egyptian Naval Forces and Saudi Royal Naval Forces started the main stage of the joint naval drill "Morjan 15" in the Red Sea. Egyptian and Saudi naval units undertook force deployment in the Red Sea and held joint tactical maneuvers in formations and air defense drills. Navy ships, helicopters, speedboats, submarines and maritime security units  took  part in the maneuvers.Egypt and Saudi Arabia relations are characterized by deeply-rooted military cooperation.

The two sides participated in the war to liberate Kuwait in 1991.

The naval maneuvers strengthened the strategic partnership and military cooperation between Egypt and Saudi Arabia to establish security and stability in the region and realize the common interests of both countries, as well as develop the capacity of participating forces from both sides to safeguard the security of navigation in the Red Sea against any threats as an important international corridor for the global economy.

The military training includes thwarting the risks, which intercept the commercial vessels and naval units

In 1991, there were military participation between the two sides during the liberation of Kuwait war.

The military relations have witnessed a number of mutual military visits between leaders and military officials in both countries to exchange points of view, experiences and military, security and intelligence information.

The joint training exercises of the two countries, includes "Tabuk" for the ground forces and "Faisal" for the air forces and "Morgan" for the naval forces.

 

 

Sport Relations

On July 14, 2018, Egypt’s team participated in the International Roman and Freestyle WrestlingTournament in Riyadh and won the championship cup after winning 12 gold medals, 4 silver medals, and 2 bronze.

Egyptian Community

According to statistics for 2012, there are an estimated 1.5 million Egyptians, It is the largest Egyptian community abroad.

The Egyptian community in Saudi Arabia supported the legitimate demands of the Egyptian people on June 30. They participated in the presidential election that took place between 15 and 18 May 2014. There were only two candidates, Abdel Fattah El Sisi and Hamdeen Sabahi. 76.609 voted in the elections; Sisi got 70.267 votes, while, Sabahi got 5.213 of the votes.

 

 

 

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